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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the basal ganglia derived from?
Partially from the Telenceph
How do the BG execute their function?
Through a series of loops
What makes up the Stiatum?
Caudate nuc & the Putamen (fused ant but separated by by the ant limb of int cap)
What makes uo the Lentiform nuc?
Putamen & ext/int Globus Pallidus
Where is the Lentiform Nuc located?
Lateral to the int cap
What are the 3 major inputs to the stiatum?
Corticostriatal, Center Median, & Substantia Nigra
What areas of the cotex project to the stiatum (corticostriatal fibers)?
All areas of the cortex especially areas 4 & 6 have the deepest projections
How are corticostrialafferents organized?
Frontal areas project to the heas of caudate. Partial, temporal & occipital areas project to the body & tail of the caudate
What do corticostriatal projections use as a neurotransmitter?
Glutamic acid (excitatory)
Where is the Centre Median nuc located?
Thalamus
What type of neurotransmitter does the Centre Median Nuc use?
Excitatory (exact is unknown)
What is the main neurotransmitter provided by the Substantia Nigra?
Dopamine
What are some other neurotransmitter provided by the SN? Origin?
Ach (striatal interneurons) , GABA (interneurons & striatal outputs), 5-HT (Raphe Nuc), & Sub P (striatalfugal fibers)
Where do the main striatal outputs go?
SN & globus pallidus
Where do the SN & globus pallidus fibers project?
Subthalamic Nuc
Where does the subthalamic nuc project?
SN & int globus pallidus
The the subthalamic nuc also receives fibers from?
Cortex (corticostriatal projections)
Where do the main outputsof the basal ganglia arise from?
Int Pallidum & SN
Where do the outputs of the basal ganglia project?
Thalamus (VA & VL) & midbrain tegmentum
Where does the SN also project (forms tectospinal tr)?
Superior Colliculus
The outputs of the basal ganglia are mostly?
Inhibitory (GABA)
At the level of the thalamus, basal ganglia inputs may indirectly interact with?
Cerebellar inputs
Where does the thalamus project to?
Cortex (Area 4 &6)
What is the function of the basal ganglia?
Preparation of movement & the ordering of sequences of movement
What is the Readiness Potenital?
A (-) DC shift recorded from the scalp that begins 600-800 msec preceding voluntary movement
What is the orign of Readiness Potential?
Cortical and Subcortical
What contributes to the Readiness Potential?
VA nuc, Med GP, & area 6 (begins firing 1 sec prior to movement)
When do area 4 neurons begin firing?
250 msec before movement
What types of movements are basal ganglia loops involved in?
Complex (handwritting or playing basketball)
What happens when a current is applied to the caudate precedding a complex movement?
The animal gets disoriented and stops performing (can still do regular mvoements)
What is Dyskinesis?
Abnormal involuntary movements. Disturbs muscle tone
What are the characteristics of Parkinsonism?
Akinesia, rigidity, & tremor at rest (lose ability to prepare movement & put it together)
What causes the rigidity of parkinsonism?
Coactivation of agonists and antagonists
What is akinesia?
Inability to initiatemovement
What causes Parkinson's?
Loss of dopamine neurons in the SN
What causes tremor @ rest?
Misinformation traveling in loops theough thr thalamus
What is the treatment for Park?
L-DOPA therapy, thalamotomy, & dopamine secreting cell implants
Do patients w/ Park show Readiness Potential?
No (not before nor after treatment)
What is the new procedure for treating Park?
bilateral pallidotomy (lesion posterovental int pallidum)
What are the results of pallidatomy?
Normalizes gait & rigidity, reduces tremor, & considerable function reinstated by establishing background activity (still requires L-DOPA)
What is Hemiballismus?
Violent flinging movement occuring in proximal musculature
What causes hemiballismus?
Damage to the subthalamic nuc
What is the function of the subthalamic nuc?
dampen & smooth the flow of information out of the basal ganglia
What is Athetosis?
Slow writhing distal movements
What is Chorea?
Brisk graceful involuntary movements