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52 Cards in this Set

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Esophageal Varices

Painless GI bleeding

Gastritis

Epigastric pain, belching, indigestion.

Peptic Ulcer disease

Epigastric/LU quadrant pain

Diverticulitis

Inflamed pouches of large intestine, left-sided quadrant pain, fever, vomiting, anorexia, tenderness.

Bleeding Diverticulitis

Left-sided abdominal pain+painless rectal bleeding

Appendicitis

RL quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, anorexia. Guarding, rebound tenderness, rigidity. Treat for shock, transport.

Perforated abdominal viscus

Widespread peritonitis, sudden onset pain, generalized tenderness with rebound and maybe rigidity.

Bowel obstruction

Progressive anorexia, abdominal bloating, diffuse ab pain, nausea, fever, vomiting, chills.

Upper GI hemorrhage

Hematemesis, dark stools, frequent diarrhea, hypotension. Give O2, transport.

Lower GI hemorrhage

Rectal bleeding, increased stool frequency, crampy diffuse pain, hypotension.

Pancreatitis

Sudden onset miabdominal pain, radiates to back/shoulders. Nausea, vomiting.

Cholecystitis

Gallbladder inflammation, UR quadrant, worsened by meals.

Hepatitis

Dull RU quadrant tenderness, decreased appetite, jaundice.

Aortic aneurysm

Diffuse abdominal pain, severe back pain, tearing sensation if Dissecting aortic aneurysm. BP different between arms.

Kidney stones

Excruciating flank pain, difficulty urinating, hematuria, nausea, vomiting.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Fever, flank pain, chills, dysuria, lower abdominal pain during urination.

Pyelonephritis

(Kidneys)Febrile, lower back/flank pain, chills.

Acute renal failure

(Kidneys) Severe dyspnea, JVD, ascites, rales at lung bases.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Lower abdominal pain, pain during movement, vaginal discharge, fever, chills.

Ovarian cyst

Lower abdominal pain...vague :I

Ectopic pregnancy

Lower abdominal pain on either side, vaginal bleeding, weak pulse, pallor. Oxygen, treat for shock, rapid transport.

Eclampsia

Hypertension, headaches, abdominal pain, seizures. During pregnancy. Transport left lateral recumbent.

Preeclampsia

Hypertension, headaches, abdominal pain. During pregnancy. Transport left lateral recumbent.

Stages of Hypothermia

Early: Rapid RR, tachycardia, red shivering skin.


Late: Slow RR, bradycardia, skin goes pale, cyanotic, then stiff. Shivering stops, as does other muscle functions.


Treatment: Do not let them drink.

Heat emergency

Early: Pale, moist skin, normal to cool skin temperature.


Late: Hot, dry skin.


Treatment for both: Remove to cool environment, remove clothing, provide oxygen, cool with fanning, transport.

Stages of stress

Alarm, resistance, exhaustion (Exhaustion most likely to see violent response)

Abruptio placenta

Mild-moderate vaginal bleeding, sharp abdominal pain, rigid tender uterus, hypovolemia. Third trimester pain=abruptio placenta, unless proven otherwise! Treat for hypovolemia, transport left lateral recumbent.

Placenta previa

Painless vaginal bleeding, soft, nontender uterus, hypovolemia. Oxygen, left lateral recumbent, treat hypovolemia, tranposrt.

Uterine rupture

Tearing abdominal pain, hypovolemic shock, rigid abdomen. Oxygen, treat shock.

Factors of APGAR

HR: Absent, <100, >100


Respiratory effort: Absent, slow/irr, good/crying


Muscle tone: Limp, flexion, active motion


Reflex irritability: None, grimace, cough/cry


Color: Blue, pink body, all pink.

Compensated Shock

Decreased blood flow to skin, GI, etc. Increased HR, RR, altered mental status.

Decompensated Shock

BP begins to fall, increased capillary refill time, pallor, big increase in HR, thready pulse, agitation.

Hypovolemic shock

Can be caused by diabetic ketoacidosis (not enough insulin). Cool, diaphoretic, tachycardic, low BP, cyanosis. Control bleeding if possible. Place in trendelenberg, transport.

Melena

Black, tarry stool

Hemoptysis

Coughing up blood

Cardiogenic shock

From severe left ventricular failure, (Acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure). Suspect if no MOI. Do NOT place in Trendelenburg. Nitro, Fowler.

Acute Myocardial Infarction

Gradual onset chest pain, radiating to lower jaw, arms, abdomen, back. Irregular pulse, syncope. Dyspnea, pink/frothy sputum (possibly pulmonary edema).

Congestive Heart Failure

Respiratory distress, anxious, cool diaphoretic skin, hypertension, JVD. Use CPAP, nitro.

Angina Pectoris

Can be gradual onset of chest pain, with radiation. Alleviated by oxygen, nitro.

Neurogenic shock

Widespread vasodialation, c-spine or high thoracic injury. Bradycardia below injury point, low BP. Jaw-thrust, stabilize, oxygen, Trendelenburg.

Septic shock

Warm skin, tachycardia, low BP. Oxygen, Trendelenburg.

Anaphylactic shock

Vasodialation, edema, coma, burning skin. Epinephrine, oxygen, transport.

Psychogenic shock

Tachycardia, normal/lowBP.

Obstructive Shock

From Tension pneumothorax or cardiac tamponade. Dsypnea, tachycardia, unilateral decreased/absent breath sounds, hypotension, JVD, subcutaneous emphysema, tracheal deviation.

Partial/Superficial burn

Superficial: Epidermis only


Partial: Epidermis & Dermis

Critical Burn

Full thickness burns more than 30% of BSA. Moderate burns in young or elderly. Burns encompassing all of body part.

Moderate burn

Full-thickness burns 2-10% of BSA, partial 15-30%, superficial >50%

Minor burn

Full thickness <2%, partial <15%

TBI

Unequal pupil size, neurologic disability, CSF leakage

Cerebral herniation

Unconcsious, unresponsive, dilated pupils, no reaction to light, irregular pulse.

Meninges

Protective covering of brain: Dura, Arachnoid, Pia (outside to inside)

Cushing reflex

As ICP increases, pulse drops