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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Integumentary system

Skin system

Skin keeps what's inside in, and outside out..


The outer layers of skin renew completely every 30 days..


Sunlight on skin makes Vitamin D

Vit. D is essential for calcium absorption, calcium helps move muscles

Skins regulates temperature how?

Blood rushes to surface, you lose heat.
Blood is kept more internal, you retain heat

17% of the oxygen comes through the skin.

Skin busy eliminating toxins

If kidney fail, the skin will help eliminate toxins

Skin is the largest sensory organ and provides with sense of touch

Touch is also a nutrient
Minimal touch will have stunted growth, mentally and physically
Touch educates the brain
Helps develop both conscience and ability to love

Flowing strokes of a Swedish massage ....

activates a cascade of beneficial hormones and nerve messages

Epideris (def.)

Outer, or top, layer of skin

Keratin (def.)

Durable, waterproof protein that cover the epidermis

Keratinocytes (def.)

Keratin-making cells that live and die in the epidermis

Cells in the top layer of skin (the epidermis)...

Create skin color

Melanin (def)

Pigment made by melanocytes (melanin-making cells) that determine skin color,
Protects from ultraviolet rays

Melanin colors ...

Black, brown, yellow, and red

Since hair is an offshoot of the epidermis...

Human hair is also comes in the same colors as melanin

Pink skin is actually skin with very low melanin....

The blood vessels showing through are what make the pink color

Epidermis is like a callus...

There has no blood supply and no nerves

Dermis (def.)

2nd layer of skin a matrix of collagen and elastin fibers

Collagen is strong, but not very stretchy...

Elastin is stretchy, but not very strong

Sensory nerves in the dermis register heat, cold, pressure, pain, and touch...

Too much heat, cold or pressure will turn into pain

Dermis contains sweat glands and oil glands ....

Sweat cools you and get ride of toxins
Oild keeps your skin lubricated

Acid mantle (def)

Sweat and oil mix to create a lubricant that repels and kills bacteria

Fibroblasts (def)

Cells that have a "blast" making fibers.
Spin fibers to close wounds

Scar tissue (def)

Fibroblasts that form densely in large and deep wounds so that blood vessels can't get through

Subcutaneous layers (def)

A.K.A hypodermis
Layer of rounds cells under the dermis and is compromised of fat cells.
Fat cells can only expand and shrink

Fat keeps in body heat

Fat is always being used and added.
Supports the organ

Subcutaneous layer provides a pathway for blood and nerves
Anchors our skin to the underlying tissues.

Fat is not responsible for "flab" underused muscle is

Bones why?

Because muscles attach to bone

206 bones in the skeletal system

Pairs (2 arm bones, 2 thigh bones)
Sets (24 vertebrae, 14 finger bones)
35 other bones

Functions of bones

Provide structure for movement (bones are what muscles and connective tissues attach to),
Protect organs,
Store minerals (ready to deliver calcium into the bloodstream),
House marry which makes blood cells

What is Bone?

highly responsive to use,
Respond to amount of stress placed on them,
Bones cells have the ability to sense how much stress has been placed upon them

Osteoblasts (def)

Bone construction is done by this.
Convert dissolved minerals in the blood into mineralized crystal.

Osteoclasts (def)

Demolition in bone,
Dissolve bony crystal, releasing minerals back into the bloodstream

Head Bones

Frontal, Zygomatic, Nasal, Maxilla, Mandible, Parietal, Temporals, Occipital, Hyoid

Frontal (def)

Bone known as the forehead bone

Zygomatic (def)

Two cheeks bones

Nasal (def)

Two smalls bones that form the bridge of your nose

Maxilla (def)

Two maxillary bones come together to form the upper jaw, which holds the upper teeth

Mandible (def)

Lower jaw bone, holds lower teeth and forms the chin

Parietal (def)

Two bones meet at the top of your head to form the upper part of the skull

Temporals (def)

Two bones that are along the sides of the head

Occipital (def)

Back and bottom of your skull

Hyoid (def)

Horseshoe-shaped bone at the base of the tongue

Articulation (def)

When bones connect

Vertebral Column

24 vertebrae.
Cervical spine, Thoracic spine, Lumbar spine, Sacrum, Coccyx

Cervical spine

7 Spines numbers C1 to C7
C1 is called atlas
c2 is called axis

Thoraic Spine

12 vertebrae Numbered T1 to T12


AKA Costals are number 1 trough 12
Sternum (Breastbone) is in front of the ribs

Lumbar spine

5 lumbar vertebrae L1 to L5
L5 is known as the Sacrum
Coccyx (tailbone) is attached to the Sacrum

Axial skeleton

Head, vetebre column, ribcage


Rest of the bone system

The Upper Limb

Arm (upper arm),
forearm (elbow to wrist),
and hands


Arm bone


Bone in the forearm on the thumb side


Bone from the elbow to the wrist on the little finger side


8 Wrist bones


Hand bones beyond the carpals
Thumb is 1 to 5


Finger bones
Thumb has 2 bones/Rest of the fingers have 3 bones,
Tips known as distal philanges,
Middle part known as middle philanges,
Proximal phalanges parts next to the knuckles of the hand


Shoulder blade
Blade-shaped bone in your upper back




Hip bone


Bone you rest on when sitting


Pubic bone

Lower limbs



Thigh bones is the longest, strongest bone in the body




Shin one


Bone on the lateral side of the leg,
disappears into the muscle of your leg


Bones in the foot


First bone at the top of your foot,
Connects with tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint


Bone which forms the heel


Five long bones in your foot,
1 through 5, 1 on the big-toe side


Same as hands