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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


The study of word structure


Smallest meaningful unit of language


The study of sentence structure

1. Passive- The subj receives the action

2. Active- The subj performs the action

3. Interrogatives - Questions

4. Declaratives- make statements

5. Imperatives- state commands

6. exclamatory- express strong feeling


The study of meaning in a language. Include a person's vocabulary.



multiple meanings


figurative language




all round items are balls

all tall men with glasses are daddy


only an oreo is a cookie

only the family poodle is a dog


The study of rules that govern the use of language in social situations.


refers to how utterances are related to one another. Can involve a monologue, dialogue, or conversational exchange in a small group.

Birth to 3 months

startle response to loud sound, visually tracks to sound, smiles reflexively, attends toward voice, cries for assistance, quiets when picked up and produces vowels.

4-6 months

raises arms to be picked up, moves/looks toward named family members, makes raspberries, growls, adult-like vowels, marginal babbling and responds to name (5 months)

7-9 months

recognizes names of common objects, comprehends "no", plays peek-a-boo, uses a wide variety of sound combinations, variegated babbling (9 months).

10-12 months

Understands 10+ words, first words, obeys some commands, object permanence, recognizes own name, jabbers loudly

perlocutionary stage

signals have an effect on the listener or observer but lack communicative intent.

For ex, if a child smiles, an observer might smile back or laugh even though the child didn't intend to express pleasure or joy.

illocutionary stage

Child uses this stage at 9-10 months.

signals to carry out some socially organized action such as pointing and laughing; uses intentional communication.

locutionary stage

Child enters at 12 months.

Begins to use words

Joint reference

focuses attention or event or object as directed by another person.

1-2 years old

holistic single word phrase, begins putting 2-words together, overextensions. Use Halliday's 7 functions of communicative intent.

Syntax: Avg MLU is 1.0-2.0

Semantics: understands no, most frequent lexical categories are nominals and verbs

Pragmatics: uses expressions that are shared meanings.

Halliday's 7 functions of communicative intent

1. Imaginative: use language to create environment

2. Heuristic: explain environment

3. Regulatory: control behaviors of others

4. Personal: expresses feelings and attitudes

5. Informative: Tell someone something

6. Instrumental: attempt to get assistance/material things from others.

7. Interactional: initiate interactions with others.

2-3 years old

1. Syntax- average mlu of 2.0-4.0, combines 3-4 word sentences, express negation, wh-questions

2. Semantics- comprehens 2,400 words meanings are learned in sequence, first pronoun used as self-referents such as I and me.

3. Morphology- present progressive-ing, irregular past tense, prepositions in, on, possessive-s, uncontractivle copula (Here I am)

4. Pragmatics: generally have communicative intent, demonstrates rapid topic shifts.

3-4 years old

1. Syntax: average mlu of 3.0-5.0, begins using complex verb phrases, uses modal verbs (could, should, would) begins using embedded forms,

2. Semantics: Comprehends 4,200 words, uses 3-4 word sentences, express negation, wh-questions, knows nursery rhymes, labels most things in environment

3. Morphology: Articles, past-tense regular -ed, regular third-person -s, irregular third person (does, has) contractible copula and auxilary.

4. Pragmatics: Can maintain conversation without loosing topic, begins to modify speech to age of listener, uses requesting, uses communicative functions.

4-5 years old

1. Syntax: avg MLU is (4.5-7), speaks in complete sentences, uses complex sentences, uses future tense, uses if, so in sentences.

2. Semantics: has an expressive range of 1500-2000 words, can name items in a category, uses more pronouns, tell long stories accurately.

3. Morphology: Uses comparatives, uses could, would, in sentence, Uses irregular plurals.

4. Pragmatics: modifies speech as a function of listener, begins to judge grammatical correctness, begins to tell jokes and riddles.

5-6 years old

1. Syntax: has an avg MLU of (6.0-8.0), uses present, past, and future tense correctly, asks how questions,uses a lang form that approximates adult model.

2. Semantics: distinguishes right and left in self, knows most common opposites, knows spatial relations and prepositions.

3. Morphology: Knows passive forms of main verb, uses irregular plurals, uses all pronouns consistently.

4. Pragmatics: Understands humor, can recognize offensive message, uses thank you and i'm sorry, contributes to adult conversation.

6-7 years old

uses "if" and "so", apt to use profanity and slang

7-8 years old

anticipates story endings, tells stories, uses superlatives, able to take listener's view point.

Cognitive Skills

most strongly influence the child's responses in early development

Language disorders are typically identified?

In grades 4-6, because there is a shift between "learning to read and write", and "reading and writing" to learn.

Intensive phonemic-awareness treatment for children who have difficulty reading

may have no direct relationship to improved reading

Phonological processes that should be eliminated by age 3


weak syllable/final consonant deletion

consonant assimilation

Fronting of velars


Phonological processes that may persist past age 3:

Final consonant devoicing

Consonant cluster reduction







children apply new info to an existing cognitive scheme


Children modify an existing cognitive scheme to include new information

Mediated learning experience

children learn through interaction with more experienced adults or peers who interpret the environment for them.


a clinician models the strategy or task to be learned, then gradually shifts or removes instructional support for the child

Stimulus control

stimulus sets the occasion for performing a behavior

Response generalization

teaching or modifying a behavior results in changes in other similar behaviors.


withdraw a reinforcer when an undesirable behavior occurs, causes a quick increase in the undesirable behavior but realization that the behavior is not reinforced will cause a gradual decrease.

Behavioral Theory

B.F. Skinner states that children learn only the language they are exposed to.


Mands: involves requests

Tacts: involves motivators like physical objects

Echoics: imitative verbal responses

Autoclitics: comment on tacts and mands

Intraverbals: continuous, fluent speech

Nativist Theory

Chomsky states that humans learn language due to innate biological ability to learn, hardwired, that's why syntax is very difficult to teach.

Children are born with a language acquisition device that is present at birth.

Cognitive Theory

Piaget states that language acquisition is made possible by cognition and general intellectual processes.

4 stages that children pass through

1. sensorimotor (0-2)

2. preoperational (2-7) Egocentric

3. Concrete operations (7-11) Ability to sequence numbers, develops ability to emphathise

4. Formal Operations (11+) Abilty to draw conclusions based on hypotheses, logical

Social Interactionism Theory

Vygotsky states children increasingly use language internally to structure their actions and direct their thoughts, cultural tools play a critical role.

Zone of Proximal development: difference between what a child can do with/without assistance.