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112 Cards in this Set

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Which Pauline Epistle has Paul's authorship not been challenge?


What is the dating of the writing of Galatians?

Early dating AD 48-49, around the Jerusalem Council. Paul's 1st Missionary Journey.

Later dating around AD 55-57, during the 3rd Missionary Journey.

The later date of Galatians is based on what view?

-Galatians 2:1-10 refers to the Council.

-Doctrine of Justification by faith resembles Romans.

What is 'North Galatian Theory?'

Paul writing to north central Asia Minor, an area which had been settled by Gauls.

What is the problem of the 'North Galatian Theory?'

We have no record, even in Acts, that Paul ever visited this area or planted churches there.

What is the 'South Galatian Theory?'

Paul was writing to a group of churches in what was the Roman province of Galatia, including towns of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe.

What are the two advantages of 'South Galatian Theory?' And what is against this view?

1) Paul consistently uses imperial Roman names to refer to regions in his other epistles

2) Paul is known to have visited the area and planted churches

1) The term Galatia usually is restricted to the northern regions of Asia Minor.

What is the theme of Galatians?

Justification by faith

Galatians is a vigorous, uncompromising defense of what?

1) Paul's own authority as an apostle of Jesus Christ

2) The true gospel of salvation by grace through faith.

What is Paul's ringing defense of justification by faith been called?

The Magna Charta of Christian Liberty

What is the Outline of Galatians?

I.) Introduction and Greeting (1:1-5)

II.) The True Gospel of Jesus Christ: A warning against Departing from the Faith (1:6-10)

III.) Paul: A True Apostle of Jesus Christ (1:11-2:14)

IV.) Salvation by Grace through Faith: The Basis of Salvation for Jew and Gentile (2:15-5:26)

V.) An Exhortation to the Galatian Christians (5:16-6:10)

VI.) Final Warning, Benediction, and Conclusion (6:11-18)

What are the four prison epistles?

Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon, and Colossians

When were the prison epistles written by Paul?

AD 60-63 during his first Roman imprisonment

Ephesians was originally what type of letter?

A Circular Letter

What is the theme of Ephesians?

The unity of Jew and Gentile in Christ, and how this contributes to the larger purpose of God for the world.

What is the outline of Ephesians?

I.) Introduction (1:1-2)

II.) Body (1:3-6:20)

III.) Conclusion (6:20-24)

When was the church in Philippi founded by Paul? Where was it located?

On his second missionary journey, AD 50-53 (Acts 16:11-40). Located in ancient Macedonia.

What was Paul's immediate purpose in writing Philippians?

To thank the Philippians for their kindness demonstrated through recent gifts.

What is the theme of Philippians?

Rejoicing in the Lord

What is the outline of Philippians?

I.) Salutation (1:1-2)

II.) Prologue (1:3-26)

III.) Body (1:27-4:9)

IV.) Epilogue (4:10-20)

V.) Conclusion (4:21-23)

The reading of Colossians reveals a mixture of what?

Jewish, Hellenistic, and mystery religion ideas.

Not a mature Gnosticism

Who probably visit Colossae and when was the writing of the letter of Colossians?

Timothy and Epaphras, during Paul's three-year stay in Ephesus (third missionary journey, AD 52-56)

What are the two false principles of Gnosticism?

1) Salvation was by mystic, exclusive knowledge

2) Matter is evil

What were the Colossians in danger of?

Drifting apart from the gospel.

What is the theme of Colossians?

To combat certain false teachings about Christ and to give encouragement concerning a healthy Christian walk.

What is the outline of Colossians?

I) Introduction and Greeting (1:1-2)

II) Paul's Thanksgiving for the Colossians' Faith in Christ (1:3-8)

III) Paul's Prayer for the Colossians (Traditional Passage) 1:9-14

IV) Correct Doctrine Concerning the Person and Work of Jesus Christ (1:15-23)

V) The Believer's Proper Response: Sacrificial Service (1:24-2:3)

VI) A Warning against Improper Responses

VII) An Admonition to Christlike Living (3:12-4:6)

VIII) Conclusion: Greetings from the Church at Rome, Final Exhortations, and Benediction (4:7-18)

What two prison epistles of Paul's, bear a very close relationship, mentioning many of the same people in their greetings?

Colossians and Philemon

What is the theme of Philemon?

The transforming power of salvation in Jesus Christ

Why is Paul writing to Philemon?

To return one of his runaway slaves, Onesimus, to make things right and intercedes on behalf of a newly born brother. Urges Philemon to forgive him.

What does Onesimus mean?


What is the outline of Philemon?

I) Greeting and Introduction (1-3)

II) Paul's Praise for Philemon (4-7)

III) Paul's Plea on Behalf of Onesimus ('Profitable) (8-16)

IV) Paul's Pledge and Assurance (17-22)

V) Conclusion (23-25)

What are the Pastoral Epistles?

1 and 2 Timothy, Titus

Why do they name those epistles 'Pastoral Epistles?' And what do they focus upon?

They provide instruction and guidance concerning the selection of church officers, and the care and protection of the churches.

They focus upon healthy church life, leadership qualifications and responsibilities, and the sound doctrine needed by all church members for a life of godliness.

When did Paul write 1 Timothy and Titus?

During his fourth missionary journey, AD 63-66.

When did Paul write 2 Timothy?

During his imprisonment in Rome under Nero, AD 66-67.

What are the reason why Pauline authorship had been denied by some scholars for the Pastoral Epistles?

1) differences in vocabulary and style

2) chronological and geographical (they cannot be reconciled with what we know of Paul's travels in Acts if one only assumes one Roman imprisonment)

3) ecclesiastical (the church is supposedly much more organized than would have been the case in AD 66).

What are the arguments for Pauline authorship on the Pastoral Epistles?

1) Paul's other epistles are to churches; these are private epistles to individuals containing different subject matters.

2) If Paul made another missionary journey to the places listed after the close of Acts and was again imprisoned, this would account for the inability to reconcile chronologies with the Book of Acts.

3) The ecclessiastical objection maybe met by recalling that Paul had already ordained elders in every city on his first missionary journey.

What is one of the purposes of the pastorals?

To ensure a higher degree of church organization

What did Paul refer to himself as in 1 Timothy 1:15?

Chief of sinners

What is the best date that 1 Timothy was written?

AD 63

Paul consider Timothy his?

son in the faith

Paul left Timothy in charge of what church?


What is the key verses of 1 Timothy?


What can 1 Timothy be considered?

Pastor's Manual

What is the Outline of 1 Timothy?

I.) Greeting and Introduction (1:1-2)

II.) Paul's Warning against False Doctrine (1:3-11) (negative)

III.) Paul's Admonition Concerning True Ministry (1:12-6:19) (positive)

IV.) Final Exhortation and Conclusion (6:20)

Where and when was Titus written?

From Macedonia or Philippi, AD 63

What is the theme of Titus?

Maintaining proper relationships in the church

What is the outline of Titus?

I.) Greetings and Introduction (1:1-4)

II.) A Call for Qualified Pastors on Crete (1:3-9)

III.) An Assessment of the Problems Faced by the Pastors on Crete (1:10-16)

IV.) An Exhortation Concerning the Solutions to the Problems (2:1-3:11)

V.) Concluding Exhortations and Benediction (3:12-15)

What epistle is the final epistle of Paul?

2 Timothy

When and where was 2 Timothy written?

On Paul's second Roman imprisonment, AD 66-67.

1 Timothy was written to encourage...

sound doctrine

2 Timothy was written to encourage...

steadfast Christian living in spite of threats and difficulties

All scripture is profitable for....

doctrine, reproof, correction, and teaching of righteousness

What is the theme of 2 Timothy?

2 Timothy 4:1-8

What is the Outline of 2 Timothy?

I.) Introduction and Greeting (1:1-5)

II.) Body: Encouragement to a Faithful Ministry (1:6-4:5)

III.) Conclusion: A Benediction (4:22)

What is the only epistle in the New Testament that is truly anonymous?


What is the earliest external sources that refers to Paul as the author, but he held that Luke had translated the book into Greek?

Clement of Alexandria

What is Origen's famous statement about the authorship of Hebrews?

"Who the author of the epistle is, God truly knows"

Who are most likely the recipients of Hebrews?

Second-generation Christians

What is the most likely date for Hebrews?

AD 65

What is the theme of the Book of Hebrews?

Jesus, our great High Priest.

Jesus is proved to be better than...

1) The prophets

2) the angelic beings

3) Moses

4) Aaron

5) Joshua

6) the Levitical priests

What is the purpose in writing Hebrews?

To call the readers to move toward Christian maturity

What is the outline of Hebrews?

I.) Prologue: Christ, the Full Revelation of God (1:1-4)

II.) Body: A Word of Exhortation (1:5-13:17)

III.) Postscript (13:18-25)

What are the General Epistles?

James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude, and 1 John

Why are the General epistles called general?

They are not addressed to individuals, or individual churches, but to Christians in general.

Peter became known as the.....

Apostle to the Jews

Where was 1 Peter written? And when?

Babylon, AD 63-64 during the time of Nero

1 Peter is addressed to who?

'hand chosen temporary residents of the scattering.'...Jewish Christians

What is the theme of 1 Peter?

Encouragement in suffering

According to 1 Peter, Christians are called to be:

-good citizens

-obedient servants

-submissive wives

-considerate husbands

-compassionate Christians brothers and sisters

What is the outline of 1 Peter?

I.) Greeting and Introduction (1:1-2)

II.) Peter's Praise to God (1:3-5)

III.) Peter's Encouragement to Suffering Jewish Christians (1:6-5:11)

IV.) Concluding Remarks and Benediction (5:12-14)

What are the arguments against the Peter's authorship on 2 Peter?

Some scholars claim it is a pious forgery. They consider the book a pseudepigrapha or false writing dating it into the second century AD, well after Peter's death.

They mention how the style and vocabulary is strikingly different

Eusebius includes 2 Peter among the ____ _______ of the New Testament.

disputed books

What are the arguments for Peter's authorship in 2 Peter?

1) Simon Peter is stated author of the letter

2) He claims to be an eyewitness of Jesus' prediction Peter's death, and an eyewitness of Jesus' Transfiguration

3) He acknowledges that this is his second letter

4) Refers to Paul as 'our beloved brother,' and honestly admits that in Paul's letters there are 'some things difficult to understand'

5) There are some reference to 2 Peter in First Clement and Didache

6) 2 Peter resembles 1 Peter more than any other book in the New Testament

7)There is no evidence that 'pious forgeries' would of been accepted in the early church.

When and where was 2 Peter written?

Just before Peter's martydom, AD 65-66 in Roman prison

Who is Peter writing to in 2 Peter?

Scattered Jewish Christians

What is the theme of 2 Peter?

It emphasizes the truthfulness of the apostolic witness in the light of imminent danger to that witness by false teachers.

Peter warns Christians to cling to...

the truth and shun false prophets, their doctrine, character, and ultimate destiny

How does 2 Peter concluded?

Eschatological ('last things'), teaching intended to strengthen the faith of believers about to undergo severe testing

What is the outline of 2 Peter?

I) Salutation and Greeting (1:1-2)

II) An Apostolic Exhortation (1:2-11)

III) Peter's Reason for Writing (1:12-3:16)

IV) Concluding Exhortations and Benediction (3:17-18)

Where and when was all three of John's epistles written?

Written to churches in Asia Minor, while John was ministering in Ephesus, AD 80-95

1 John is a _____ letter.


1 John is intended to accomplish...

1) Warns against the spread of gnosticism

2) Provides assurance of salvation

3) 'Love one another' is the third major theme

4) Proper Christian behavior is emphasized

What is the key verse in 1 John?

1 John 1:3-9

What is the outline of 1 John?

I) Living the Christian Life (1:1-2:7)

II) The Nature of the Christian Life (2:18-28)

III) Three Tests for the Genuine Christian Life (2:29-3:24)

IV) Four Assurances for Living the Christian Life (4:1-5:21)

In 2 and 3 John, the author identifies himself as ______.

an elder

Who are the recipients of 2 and 3 John?

'those whom I love in truth'

What is the theme of 2 and 3 John?

walk in truth

What are the similarities that marks the works of John?

1) An emphasis of truth

2) An emphatic warning against the 'antichrists' or false teachers

3) That genuine love involves obedience to Christ's commands

4) Similar statement that the command to love is not new

5) Similar statement that the one who does evil has not seen God

What is the outline of 2 John?

I) Salutation and Greeting (1-3)

II) Body: A Warning Against False Teachers (4-11)

III) Concluding Remarks (12-13)

What is the outline of 3 John?

I) Salutation (1)

II) Body: Working Together in Love (3-12)

III) Concluding Remarks

The name James means?


When was James written?

AD 48-50, in Jerusalem

The Epistles of James is similar to what literature in the OT?

wisdom literature

What is the outline of James?

I) Salutation and Greeting (1:1)

II) The Path of Wisdom (1:2-5:16)

What is the theme of Jude?

He wanted to write a letter discussing facets of salvation, but the very present threat of false teachers has forced him to write a letter of exhortation, warning his readers to contend earnestly to the faith.

Jude exhorts his readers onward to faithfulness in the practice of Christian virtues. They should:

1) pray in the Holy Spirit

2) keep themselves in the love of God

3) await the return of the Lord Jesus

4) show mercy

5) snatch others from the brink of spiritual disaster

6) avoid false teaching

What is the outline of Jude?

I) Salutation and Greeting (1-2)

II) Warning Concerning False Teachers (3-16) (negative)

III) The Proper Christian Behavior Expected of Jude's Readers (17-23) (positive)

IV) Benediction to God (24-25)

Revelation is a _______ ________ like Ephesians, meant to circulate to seven churches located on a major travel route connecting population centers in Asia Minor.

cyclical epistle

How many times is the book of Revelation signed by John?

five times

How does John speak of Jesus in Revelation?

'Word' and 'Lamb of God'

What is the stylistic difference between Revelation and other of John's writings?

The language is much cruder, and the vocabulary is somewhat different.

Revelation was written when and where?

Patmos, AD 90-96

Revelation is sometimes entitled what? And what does Lanier prefer to entitled it?

'The Book of the Revelation of John the Apostle'

'The Book of the Revelation of Jesus Christ'

What does Revelation mean?

to remove the veil or to reveal

What is the key verse of Revelation?

Revelation 1:19

How is Revelation divided into?

1) "the things which you have seen"; i.e., the vision of the resurrected and glorified Jesus described in chapter 1

2) "the things which are," a reference to the seven churches described in chapters 2-3

3) "the things which will take place after this," a prophetic look at God's program at the end of the present age, in chapters 4-22

Revelation contains what three types of material?

prophecy, apocalyptic, and epistolary

What are the history of interpretation?

Preterist, Historical, Idealist, and Futuristic

What is the key verse in Revelation?

Revelation 1:19

What is the outline of Revelation?

I) Preface and Salutation (1:1-7)

II) Body (1:8-22:5)

III) Concluding Exhortations and Benediction (22:6-21)