• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes up the forebrain?
What makes up the brainstem?
What makes up the hindbrain?
cerebrum and diencephalon
midbrain, pons, and medulla
pons, medulla, and hindbrain
What fissure separates the two cerebral hemispheres?
Longitudinal fissure
What separates frontal and parietal lobes? What separates the lateral lobe form the frontal and parietal lobes?
Central sulcus
lateral fissure
What gyrus is superior to the corpus callosum? What does it handle?
cingulate gyrus
What occupies the cortical midline?
limbic lobe
What is the function of the following structures:

conscious thought
sensory relays
consciousness and visual/auditory data
sensory relay, motor (peduncles)
autonomic and thalamus relay
motor control
What are the functions of the lobes?
Frontal lobe: personality and higher centers for voluntary motor activities (Primary motor cortex- seen in red)
Parietal lobe: peripheral sensations (primary somatosensory cortex- seen in blue)
Temporal lobe: sensations of smell, taste (in insula) & hearing
Occipital lobe: vision
What condition has slurred, slow words? Which condition has phonemic paraphrasia?
lesions in Broca's area
lesions in Wernicke's area
What do right sided lesions cause in Broca's and Wenicke's area?
dull monotone speech
inability to understand tone
What are basal ganglia?
series of interconnected nuclei embedded in the subcortical white matter involved in the control of movement (plan, initiate, and maintain voluntary motor activities)
What makes up the basal ganglia? what does damage to the area cause?
striatum, pallidum, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus

Negative signs: loss of motor function
Positive signs: new motor activities, or an inability to suppress unwanted motor function
What are the mamillary bodies?
olfactory pathway relay station that are part of the hypothalamus
What are the 3 steps of sensory input?
What are the 2 steps of motor output?
Neuron 1 carries information to the CNS
Neuron 2 carries the information to the contralateral thalamus
Neuron 3 carries the information to the cortex

Neuron 1 (the upper motor neuron) carries information from the cortex to a lower motor neuron on the contralateral side of the CNS
Neuron 2 (the lower motor neuron) carries the information from the CNS to a muscle
What are the functions of the meninges?
Cover and protect the CNS
Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
Contain CSF (Keep the brains suspended in a bath of CSF)
Form partitions within the skull that prevents
movement within the skull
What layers make up the meninges?
Dura or pachymeninx = tough mother, 2 layers
- periosteal and the menegeal
Arachnoid = web like, -appears like syran wrap
subarachnoid space with trabeculae (delicate
collagen and elastic fibers)
The Pia adheres to the brain & is rich in capillaries
follows contour of the brain
Where are dura not fused?
dural sinuses
What artery and nerve supply the dura?
middle meningeal artery
trigeminal nerve
What are the 4 septa?
falx cerebri - between the cerebral hemispheres (free edge follows the corpus callosum)
tentorium cerebelli - transverse septum separating the occipital lobe from the cerebellum
falx cerebelli - septum between the cerebellar hemispheres
diaphragma sellae - roof of the hypophysis fossa (sella turcica), perforated by the infundibular stalk
What are the Arachnoid villi?
protrude superiorly and permit
CSF to be absorbed into venous blood
What returns CSF to the blood via the superior sagittal sinus?
What are 2 potential spaces?
What is a countrecoup injury?
damage to brain during rebound collision with opposite side the skull
What does a epidural hematoma look like? What likely tears?
middle meningeal artery
What shape is a subdural hematome and why?
What tears?
bounded by dura and arachnoid
bridging veins
What causes worst headache of life in subarachnoid hematoma? What tears? how does it look?
meningeal irritation
arteries in pial membrane
texaco star
Where is the blood brain barrier absent?
the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland
What are the 4 components of corpus callosum?
Where does the brain receive its blood supply?
80% of the brain’s
blood supply comes from the carotid,
and the remaining 20% from the vertebral
What is the difference between cortical and central branches?
Cortical (Circumferential) Branches
Supply External Brain Structures
Central (Penetrating) Branches
Penetrate ventral surface to supply internal brain structures
What do the anterior choroidal arteries supply?
Anterior hippocampus &
Posterior limb of the internal capsule
What does an interruption in the anterior cerebral arteries cause?
Paralysis of legs and feet
Difficulty in prefrontal lobe functions of cognitive thinking, judgment, motor initiation and self monitoring
what are watershed areas?
Oerlap in arterial perfusion
What is a transient ischemic attack?
Transient occlusion of an intracranial artery due to thromboembolism
Symptoms resolve following rapid fragmentation and dissolution of the microemboli/thrombus
What is an embolism and thrombosis?
Embolism: object/piece of a clot (from another part of the body) which travels through artery until it gets stuck
Thrombosis: object originating within a blood vessel: local buildup of fatty substances usually at a bifurcation of artery, these can rupture leading to bleeding and clotting
What is a lacunar infarct?
Occlusion of small vessels (200-400 mm)
internal capsule/corona radiata,
basal ganglia,
brain stem
What is an Arteriovenous Malformations?
Appear tangled mass of arteries and veins
Blood vessel defects that occur before birth
Can cause hemorrhagic strokes
What is the Monro-Kellie Doctrine?
As an intracranial mass increases in size

CSF is displaced into the spinal canal
Blood volume is reduced in the brain
Displacement of brain tissue - herniation
What are the 4 types of herniation and the 2 types?
Cingulate or subfalcine: compress anterior cerebral arteries)
Transtentorial herniation: ultimately the brainstem is compressed which results in death if the pressure is not removed
Tonsillar (chiari malformation) can be incidental, or life threatening
Cerebellar herniation (increased p2 in posterior fossa can push cerebellum up

The supratentorial (occurs above the tentorial notch)
Uncal, transtentorial (central), cingulate, and
The infratentorial (occurs below the tentorial notch)
upward transtentorial and tonsillar.
What kind of neurons bleong in the afferent category? What neurons belong in the effernt category? CNS?
unipolar and psuedopolar
How is interneuronal fow carried? Intraneuronal?
What is the point of the cytoskeleton?
structural suport
Guidance during development, growth, neuronal
repair and regeneration
Aid in the transport of substances to and from the
cell body (axonal transport)
Which cytoskeleton elements are polar? Non-polar? Which uses ATP? Which used GTP? Nucleotide binding?
Actin and microtubules
What are the main 2 functions of neurofilaments?
structure and help in axonal transport
What is the specific funciton of actin filaments? What 3 things are they associated with?
Help neurons interact with extracellular matrix and with other cells (tight junctions/gap junctions)
Associated with:
presynaptic terminals
dendritic spines
growth cones
Which motor protein is anterograde? Retrograde?
How does phosphorylation affect microtubules? What is this indicative of?
What is transported by Component A fast anterograde?
neurotransmitters & neuropeptides
membrane lipids & glycolipids
membrane-associated enzymes (e.g. ACh-esterase)
receptor proteins
What is transported by Component B tranport?
Unbound materials transported (mitochondria)
does not require cell body…. or axon (just the axoplasm)
What is the significance of the slow anterograde axonal transport?
cytoskeletal elements, e.g. actin, tubulin, MTs, NFs, MFs
soluble enzymes, e.g. glycolytic enzymes

Primary mediator of axon growth and regeneration

Limiting factor of regeneration
What is the purpose of fast retrogrde transport? What does it carry and in what container?
Returns old membrane components from the axon
terminal to the cell body for recycling
Transported materials are packaged into organelles
materials transported include:
trophic factors & growth factors
used materials bound for lysosomal degradation
viruses, e.g. rabies, polio, herpes simplex
dyes, e.g. HRP
Which cells are scavengers?
think macrophages
What is the difference between macorglia and microglia?
Macroglia, which include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,
and ependymal cells, are of ectodermal origin
Microglia, the macrophages of the CNS, are of
mesodermal origin.
What are the 4 differences between glia and neurons?
Glial cells differ from neurons in that (1) they do not form
synapses; (2) they have only one type of process; (3) they
retain the ability to divide throughout their life span; and
(4) they are electrically inexcitable
What is the purpose of Schwann cells?
Schwann cells supply the myelin of the PNS: Each Schwann cell commits itself to a portion of one axon
Help determine distribution of voltage-gated channels along axon
Regulate synaptic communication at NMJ (neuromuscular junction), including likely release of transmitters
Important in recovery from axon damage: supply growth factors, “channel” for new growth
How are oligodendrocytes different from Schwann cells?
A single oligodendrocyte sends out multiple processes
Each process wraps around a portion of an axon
Thus a single oligodendrocyte contributes myelin to several (40?) central axons

Each Schwann cell commits itself to a portion of one axon
What are the most abundant and versatile glial cells?
What is the purpose of astrocytes?
Support and brace neurons
Anchor neurons to their nutrient supplies
Guide migration of young neurons
Control the chemical environment
What are radial glial cells?
Supply guidance to neurons during neural migration

Are progenitors for fibrous & protoplasmic astrocytes
What and where are ependymal cells?
Ependymal cells – range in shape from squamous to columnar. They line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column

They line the ventricular system
Describe microglia?
Arise from mesoderm not neuroectoderm
Mediate immune responses
Become reactive in response to damage
more microglia are recruited to the damaged area
phagocytose pathogens and cell debris in the CNS
release cytokines (IL-1, TNF-a)
Susceptible to HIV infection
What causes transient loss of function?
What causes permanent loss?
constant pressure

neuronal degeneration
How is regeneration limited in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes inhibit neurite outgrowth

Reactive astrocytes cause glial scarring which interferes with nerve regrowth

Fewer chemotropic factors available in CNS
What is wallerian degenration?
Axonal degeneration distal to insult
Nerve terminal fills with clumps of
Neurofilaments and disrupted mitochondria
Contact Post synaptic membrane lost
Glia invade and phagocytose debris
What are the steps of distal degneration?
Synaptic transmission lost, terminal fills with clumps of NFs, disrupted mitochondria (Week 1)
Contact with post-synaptic membrane lost, glial cells invade, axon segment distal to injury withdraws (Week 2)
Distal segment fully degenerates, myelin sheath lost, termed Wallerian degeneration (PNS: week 2-8; CNS, phagocytosis may last for months)
Why does retrograde degeneration occur?
synaptic pattern dies
What happens to a neuron during chromatolysis?
Rearrangement of Nissl substance (arrow)
Swelling of the cell body with displacement of the nucleus (arrowhead) (Nissl, ×250)
How do Schwann cells promote regeneration?
release of trophic factors
What is the cause of crocodile tears syndrome?
Regrowing axons are not very selective and aberrant
reinervation commonly occurs
where are neural stem cells found?
walls of the
How does the CNS compensate for degeneration?
Reorganization of neuronal circuits,
Increase spine density,
Dendritic arborization and by
What are the consequences of degeneration?
Synaptic transmission is lost
Contact post synaptic membrane lost
Nerve terminal fills up with neurofilaments
and disrupted mitochondria
Distal segment degenerates fully, myelin
sheath lost, termed Wallerian degeneration
Glia invade and phagocytose debris (PNS:
week 2-8; CNS, phagocytosis may last months)
What are the 5 basic steps of neuron transmission?
Synthesis of NT
Packaging (concentration of NT) in presynaptic terminal
Release NT from presynaptic terminal into synapse
Binding of NT to receptor in postsynaptic membrane
Termination of NT action
What is vasogenic edema? What is it caused by? What is cytotoxic edema? What is it caused by?
Vasogenic edema – fluid leaks from blood vessels into brain
Cause: frequent in cases of head trauma and meningitis
Where: In regions bordering ischemic zones,
Why: increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier

Cytotoxic edema - fluid leaks into individual
Cause: drug poisoning, water intoxication, hypoxia from asphyxia and acute hyponatremia

Result: shift of water from extracellular space to interior of brain cells