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168 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What neurotransmitter do cholinergic neurons secrete?
In muscle fibers, acetylcholine has an ________ effect
In heart and respiratory muscles, ACh has an ________ effect
In the brain ACh is involved in ________ & __________
learning and memory
Alzheimer's Disease is associated with loss of receptors of this neurotransmitter in the hippocampus & cortex
*A* lz *H* eimers
LACK of serotonin as well as the catecolamines dopamine & norepinephrine is associated with ________
EXCESSIVE dopamine & norepinephrine is associated with _______
Dopamine & Norepinephrine are both types of ________
Tourettes is associated with an excess of _________ (or increased sensitivity to it)
Muscular rigidity & tremors in Parkinson's disease is due to degeneration of the neurons that produce _________ (neurotransmitter)
what neurotransmitter is associated with stimulants, nicotine and opiates?
OCD & PTSD are related to what neurotransmitter, and how?
low serotonin
______ has an inhibatory role assoc with eating, sleep, anxiety, and seizure disorders
Low levels of _____ in the motor regions of the brain are associated with Huntington's Chorea
Anxiety is associated with ____ (hi/lo) levels of _____
low levels of GABA
Glutamate is generally associated with what 3 functions?
learning, memory, and long-term potentiation
Long-term potentiation
involved in the transfer from short-term to long-term potentiation
endorphins are __________ that inhibit or block feelings of pain by binding to opiate receptor sites, reducing activity in the thalamus and cerebrum
The medulla controls...
vital functions (e.g., breathing, heart rate, digestion, blood pressure)
The pons controls...
states of arousal
The cerebellum controls/coordinates...
balance, posture, and coordinates movements
The medulla, pons, and cerebellum make up the _________
The midbrain includes the ________ & the __________
substantia nigra & reticular formation
Degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra results in what disease?
The reticular formation is a formation of nerve cells that extends from the spinal cord to the hindbrain and into the midbrain. It plays a role in _______, _______, and ___________
sleep, arousal, filtering of irrelevant information
The forebrain includes these 6 structures/systems
1) thalamus, 2) hypothalamus, 3) suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), 4) basal ganglia, 5) limbic system (i.e., the amygdala, hippocampus, & septum), 6) the cerebral cortex
The thalamus is involved in
relaying incoming sensory information except olfactory info to the cortex
The hypothalamus is involved in many important functions, including
maintaining body’s homeostasis, eating and drinking, and sexual bx
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is located within ________ & regulates ________
the hypothalamus, circadian rhythms
The limbic system consists of these 3 structures
hippocampus, amygdala, and septum
the limbic system HAS 3 structures
The limbic system is involved in
mediating the emotional component of bx
The hippocampus is involved with
memory (it transfers info from short to long term memory) and emotions (as it’s part of the limbic system)
The lobes of the cerebral cortex include
frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
The frontal lobe is involved in
reasoning, concentration, motor behavior, expressive language, orientation to time, place & person
The temporal lobe is involved in
receptive language, memory, emotion
The parietal lobe is involved in
receiving and processing info related to touch pressure, kinesthesia, and pain
The occipital lobe is all about
the visual cortex
LATERALIZATION: verbal functions are primarily controlled by the
dominant (usually left) hemisphere
LATERALIZATION: visual-spatial activities are usually controlled by the
non-dominant (usually right) hemisphere
LATERALIZATION: Rational processes like sequencing and logical thinking are associated with the ______ hemisphere
LATERALIZATION: Artistic and musical activities thinking are associated with the ______ hemisphere
The ___________ is a diffuse formation of nerve cells that extends from the spinal cord to the hindbrain and into the midbrain. It plays a role in sleep, arousal, filtering of irrelevant information, pain/touch, reflexes & respiration
reticular formation
The raphe nuclei are located in the ______, use ______ as a neurotransmitter, and are involved in ______
pons, serotonin, triggering and maintaining slow-wave sleep
Slurred speech, severe tremors & loss of balance is called ______
Damage to the cerebellum can result in _______
The mesencephalon is another term for the _________ and includes the ______, and the _______
midbrain, and includes the substantia nigra & the reticular formation
Many aspects of movement including smoothness, initiation, termination, and directedness are modulated by the _____, which consists of these 3 structures
extrapyramidal motor system which consists of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the substantia nigra
Reticular Activating System (RAS) is involved in
maintaining a waking state, arousal, and (selective) attention
The hypothalamus exerts its control over the autonomic nervous system & endocrine system via its influence over the _______
pituitary gland
What system regulates circadean rhythyms, and how?
SCN interprets light and dark on the retina, sends info to the pineal gland which secretes melatonin at nighttime.
The hypothalamus is (above/below) the thalamus
The caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen are all parts of the ________
basal ganglia
Abnormalities in the _______ are associated with Tourette’s, Huntingtons, and Parkinsons. Depression, OCD, mania, and psychosis have also been linked with this structure
basal ganglia
Which structure integrates and directs emotional bx, attaches emotional significance to info received from the senses, and mediates aggressive/defensive bx?
The amygdala
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome in monkeys, which is associated with damage to the _______, is characterized by lack of fear and aggression, increased docility, altered dietary habits, and hypersexuality
The “pleasure center” is located in the _______, and when rats are given the opportunity to self-stimulate this area they do so until physically exhausted
the septum
Aside from being the "pleasure center" the septum functions to __________
inhibit emotionality
Bilateral destruction of the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial temporal lobes develop _________ amnesia
anterograde – cannot form new memories
The frontal lobe consists of these 3 cortexes
primary motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortex
Apraxia =
1) poor coordination of complex purposeful movements

2) inability to learn/perform these movements despite normal muscles strength and coordination

3) Folks seem to know what they want to do, but can’t do it.
Aphasia =
deficit in the ability to USE or UNDERSTAND language
Broca’s area is involved in ________, and is usually located in the ______cortex of the _______ lobe
speech production, in the dominant (usually left) PREMOTOR CORTEX of the FRONTAL lobe.
Broca’s Aphasia =
difficulty producing speech, often speaking slowly and using very few words, mostly nouns and verbs, with awareness of the deficit.
The prefrontal cortex is involved in
personality expression, emotion, memory, exec function, complex cognitive functions
Decreased initiative, deficient self awareness, difficulties w decision making, abstract thinking, social control and preservation are all associated with damage to which cortex?
the prefrontal cortex
“Frontal lobe personality” is caused by damage to the area and results in _________
”pseudodepression” manifested by apathy, limited verbal bx, inability to plan or focus attn
“Pseudopsychopathy” is a syndrome caused by damage to the frontal lobe that results in
sexual inhibition, lack of concern for others, coarse language, peculiar humor, and inappropriate social bx
The auditory cortex is located in the ______ lobe
temporal lobe
The temporal lobe is involved in…
receptive language, memory, emotion
Auditory agnosia and deficits in selective attn, as well as hallucinations, delusions, and mood disturbances can result from damage to the…
temporal lobe
Wernicke’s Area is usually located in the ______ , and is involved in…
dominant (usually left) TEMPROAL lobe and is involved in the COMPREHENSION of language
Wernicke’s Aphasia (aka fluent or receptive aphasia) presents as…
speech that sounds normal, but makes no sense. Patients typically are unaware of the deficit.
Conduction aphasia is characterized by someone who________. It is caused by damage to the arcuate fasciculus which connects which two areas of the brain?
can speak fluently and comprehend speech, but can’t repeat what they just heard… broca’s & wernicke’s areas
Some patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy develop symptoms including
intensified emotions, religious preoccupation, social clinging, changes in sexual bx
Integration of sensory information, processing of somato-sensory input (e.g., touch, pressure, temperature, pain, kinesthesia) are all performed in which lobe?
Parietal Lobe
Tactile agnosia
inability to identify objects by touch
Contralateral neglect
loss of knowledge about or interest in one side of the body
inability to read or write
Damage to the parietal lobe can result in…
tactile agnosia
contralateral neglect
asomatognosia (cant recognize body parts)
impaired spatial orientation
& poor facial recognition.

Usually px isn’t aware of their deficits
Gertsmann’s Syndrome is caused by damage to the ______ (hemisphere and lobe), and is characterized by agraphia, acalculia, left-right disorientation, and finger agnosia
dominant (usually left) parietal lobe
The LEFT hemisphere is generally associated with…
analytical thinking, logic, sequencing, and “rationality”
The RIGHT hemisphere is generally associated with…
artistic and musical abilities
Split brain patients are unable to name objects presented exclusively to their _______ visual field, or their _______ hemisphere
left visual field & right hemisphere
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
“We are afraid because we tremble.” Autonomic arousal comes first, then interpretation of arousal leads to emotional state
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Emotions are caused by environmental stimulation of thalamus (resulting in general arousal) & cortex (resulting in emotional experience). The two are simultaneous and all emotions are the same in terms of arousal
C & B are very almost co-occuring in the alphabet. In this theory physio arousal and emotional experience are co-occuring.
Cognitive-Arousal Theory was developed by ________ and suggests that…
Schachter & Singer (1962)… emotions relate to both arousal AND the attributions for that arousal, and arousal is pretty similar for most emotional states, so it’s more about how we take our cues from the environment that predicts how we interpret the arousal and therein, the emotion
Universal Emotions are…
innate, universal across cultures, and form the basic components of more complex emotions
Appetite involves which 3 structures, and how?
hypothalamus (received metabolic info and mediates energy input and output), hindbrain (receives info from GI tract), limbic system (the emotional aspect of food, pleasure, reward)
What are the 2 sub-regions of the hypothalamus specified as having a role in hunger and satiety, respectively?
lateral & ventromedial areas
What percent of variance in body weight is determined by genes?
The externality hypothesis
obese individuals are more sensitive to external cues (taste, social situations, cognitive cues) than internal ones (physiological cues like stomach motility)
In 2000, ____% of Americans were either overweight or obese
61% (34% & 27% respectively)
Sex hormones are produced in the _______ & the _________
pituitary gland & the gonads
LH (leutenizing hormone) initiates…
LH initiates production of androgens & estrogen in testes & ovaries. It also initiates progesterone production in the ovaries.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) causes…
the testes to produce sperm and the ovaries to release ova
What hormone causes virilization in males & are involved in sexual interest in males and females?
What hormone is necessary for normal sexual development and reproductive functioning in females, while also found in males but without a known function?
What hormone maintains the placenta during pregnancy?
What 6 symptoms are associated with a drop in estrogen levels?
hot flashes, mood swings, loss of vaginal elasticity & lubrication, insomnia, and an increased risk of osteoperosis & heart disease
HRT is different than ERT in that
it combines estrogen with progesterone
Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT)’s negative side effects include
1) increased risk of breast cancer
2) libido (decreased testosterone --> decreased sex drive)
3) depression
4) nausea
5) weight changes
6) headaches
What function is the VLPO of the hypothalamus hypothesized to have?
it’s the “sleep switch” that regulates and initiates sleep.
Alpha waves are typical of what state?
relaxed wakefulness
Beta waves are typical of what state?
active, alert states
How many stages of sleep are there and how are they categorized?
5 states: 4 NREM + REM sleep
What happens in stage 1 sleep?
transitional state in which alpha waves give way to slower theta waves, heart rate slows, muscles relax
What happens in stage 2 sleep?
Theta waves with sleep spindles (bursts of faster activity) and K-complexes (higher-amplitude activity)
What happens in stage 3 sleep?
large, slow delta waves first appear
What happens in stage 4 sleep?
delta waves are dominant, breathing is deep and HR has slowed
Delta, or slow-wave sleep occurs during which stage(s)?
Stage 3 & 4
REM is characterized by…
rapid eye movements, absence of muscle tone, mixed frequency EEG
Which sleep cycle is known as “paradoxical sleep” and why?
REM, because EEG activity is typical of an aroused nervous system, while sleeper responsivity to the environment is low.
Full sleep cycle lasts _____ minutes and occurs ____ times/night?
100 minutes, 4-6x/night
The length of REM cycles (increase or decrease) over the course of the night?
increase from ~10min → 50min
In infancy, REM makes up ___% of total sleep time, while in adulthood, REM makes up _____%
Infancy: 50%
Adulthood: 20%
REM deprivation doesn’t alter personality or serious maladjustment, but it can increase ______ , _______, & have an adverse effect on_______
1) increased anxiety
2) increased irritability
3) decrease cognitive ability
REM rebound
when a sleep-deprived person is no longer deprived, they spend more time in REM sleep than normal.
What stage of sleep do Night Terrors occur in?
Stage 4
What parts of the brain are most associated with memory, and how?
Prefrontal cortex: short term memory, temporal lobe: long term memory, hippocampus: memory consolidation
Korsakoff’s Syndrome involves a deficiency in
thiamine (Vit B1)
Korsakoff’s Syndrome involves legions in which parts of the brain?
hypothalamus & thalamus
Which gland is considered the “master gland” and why?
the pituitary gland, because it secretes the hormones that tell other glands what hormones to create.
What hormone does the Adrenal Cortex produce?
What hormones do the gonads produce?
Testes: Androgens, Estrogen… Ovaries: Androgens, Estrogen & Progesterone
What hormone does the Thyroid produce?
What hormone does the pancreas produce?
What hormones does the pituitary gland produce?
LH, FSH, GH (growth hormone), ADH (antidiuretic hormone), ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone – stimulates production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex)
Addison’s Disease and Cushing’s Disease are related in that
Addisons (fatigue, fainting, loss of appetite, weight loss, depression & apathy) is caused by underproduction of cortisol in the adrenal gland, while Cushing’s (obesity, memory loss, mood swings, depression & somatic delusions) is caused by overproduction of cortisol in the adrenal gland.
Cretinism, which involves physical maldevelopment and intellectual impairment, is caused by
thyroid deficiency in early life
Hypothyroidism is sometimes mistaken for ________ and is the result of ?
depression, under-secretion of thyroxin by the thyroid gland, slowing down metabolism.
Hyperthyroidism (ie Graves Disease) is caused by
oversecretion of thyroxine by the thyroid
Rods are specialized for
nightvision, degree of brightness
Cones are specialized for
daytime, sharp focused, color vision
What is the fovea?
the center of the retina around which most cones are clustered
The range of audible frequencies in humans is _____(in Hz or cps)
Auditory Locatization: definition and developmental course
the ability to orient toward the direction of a sound… it is present at birth, declines between 1-4 months, then improves until it’s fully developed soon after 12 months
Somesthesis includes these 4 sub-modalities
pain, temperature, position, and pressure/touch
Pain is affected by subjective variables including
knowledge, attn, motivation and suggestibility.
What is the Gate Control Theory?
a way of explaining how pain can be masked by other (larger) sensations. i.e., activation of the large myelinated afferent fibers inhibits transmission of pain by the smaller unmyelinated fibers b/c the pain system can only handle a limited number of sensations
Afferent nerves from the olfactory epithelium run directly to the brian via the
limbic system
Tastes are most intense during what phase of life?
What are the absolute threshold (be specific abt %) and the difference threshold studied by Fechner?
ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD: the intensity at which a stimulus is detected 50% of the time

DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD: the “Just noticeable difference” or the smallest physical difference b/w 2 stimuli that is recognized as a difference
Fechner’s Law (aka Weber’s Law)

Describes the relationship between the physical magnitudes of stimuli and the perceived intensity of the stimuli, e.g., JND & absolute threshold
Steven’s Law
An improvement on Fechner's Law

There is an exponential relationship between the magnitude of physical stimuli and internal sensations, ***with the exponent varying for different kinds of stimuli***
Brain imaging techniques are divided into these two types
structural & functional
CT and MRI are examples of ______ brain imaging techniques
_____, _____, and ______ are all examples of functional brain imaging techniques
fMRI, PET scan, and SPECT
Which brain imaging technique is best for identifying the distribution of neurotransmitters?
PET scan
rare disorder characterized by an inability to recognize familiar faces
the inability or unwillingness to recognize one’s own functional impairment
Children are more likely to develop a brain tumor in the _______ or ________, whereas adults are more likely to develop one in the ______
cerebellum, brain stem… cerebral cortex
The most common symptoms of brain tumor include
headaches (dull, generalized pain), seizures (esp partial complex), nausea & vomiting (esp projectile vomiting), vision/hearing problems
dementia, disturbances in gait, and urinary incontinence sometimes follow after stroke and are caused by...

an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles in the brain.
Who is more likely to lose consciousness? Someone who has an open head or closed head TBI?
closed head
The greatest gains in recovery after a stroke are made during the first ___ months?
Amnesia, loss of consciousness, and likely cognitive, somatic, and emotional symptoms are more characteristic of (open or closed head trauma)?
closed head
The greatest gains in recovery after a closed head injury are made during the first ___ months?
Huntington’s symptoms typically show up around ages
Affective symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, mania, emotional lability, withdrawal), forgetfulness, personality changes, and motor disruption are characteristic of what neurological disorder?
What parts of the brain are affected by Huntingtons?
substantia nigra, basal ganglia, and cortex
Tremor, muscle rigidity, motor disruption, akinesia (slowness of movement, a blank facial expression), and depression are characteristic of what neurological disorder?
What is dysarthria and what is it commonly mistaken for?

Problems in articulation (due to lesions or disease in areas that control speech)

Often mistaken for aphasia
reading disability caused by an acquired brain lesion
depletion of serotonin in which 3 regions of the brain results in depression?
1) hypothalmus
2) amygdala
3) cortial regions
Serotonin plays a role in what 5 categories of disorders?
eating disorders
social phobias
Left-right disorientation & finger agnosia are associated with damage to which side of the brain?
Left side
Alzheimer's Dementia is most often associated with damage to the: (which lobe)
Temporal Lobe
Peripheral vision is processed in the: <><> 1) anterior occipital lobe <><>
2) posterior occipital lobe
1) anterior occipital lobe