Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How do glaucoma drugs work?

Decrease IOP by decreasing amount of aqueous humor via inhibiting synthesis/secretion or inc. drainage

Classes of glaucoma drugs?

Alpha-agonists, beta-blockers, diuretics, cholinomimetics, prostaglandin

Give an example of an alpha-agonist for glaucoma and its MOA.

Epinephrine, brimonidine (alpha-2) Decreases aqueous humor synthesis

Side effects of brimonidine?

Blurry vision, ocular hyperemia, foreign body sensation, ocular allergic reactions, ocular pruritis

Examples of beta-blockers for glaucoma and its MOA.

Timolol, betaxolol, carteolol Dec. aqueous humor synthesis

Give an example of a diuretic for glaucoma. MOA?

Acetazolamide Dec. aqueous humor synthesis via inhibition of carbonic anhydrase

Examples of cholinomimetics for glaucoma? MOA for direct?

Direct-Pilocarpine, Carbachol; Indirect-physostigmine, echothiophate Inc. outflow of aqueous humor via contraction of ciliary muscle and opening of trabecular meshwork

S/Es of direct cholinomimetics?

Miosis and cyclospasm (contraction of ciliary muscle)

Example of prostaglandin for glaucoma? MOA?

Latanoprost Increases outflow of aqueous humor

Give examples of opioid analgesics.

Morphine, codeine, methadone, fentanyl, loperamide, meperidine, dextromethorphan, diphenoxylate

How do opioid analgesics work?

Opioid receptor agonists>open K+ channels and close Ca++ channels which decreases synaptic transmission

Clinical use of opioid analgesics?

Pain, cough suppression, diarrhea, acute pulmonary odema, maintenance for addicts

List side effects of opioid analgesics.

Addiction, resp. depression, constipation, miosis

What is butorphanol? Clinical use?

Analgesic that works on (mu) and kappa opioid receptors as a (partial) agonist. Severe Pain

What is tramadol? Clinical use?

Very weak opioid agonist. Chronic pain.

List anti-epileptic agents.

Ethosuximide, benzodiazepines, phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate, lamotrigine, levertiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrin

What drugs can be used for absence seizure? Which is 1st-line and how does it work?

Ethosuximide, valproic acid. Ethosuximide works by blocking thalamic T-type Ca++ channels.

Which drugs can be used for status epilepticus? Which is 1st-line for prophylaxis and how does it work?

Phenytoin, benzodiazepines. Phenytoin works by increasing Na+ channel inactivation; zero-order kinetics

How do benzodiazepines work? S/Es?

Increase GABA(a) action; S/Es include sedation, tolerance, dependence, resp. depression

What anti-epileptic agents can be used for simple seizure?

Phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrin

Which anti-epileptic agents can be used for complex seizure?

Phenytoin, carbamazepine*, valproic acid, gabapentin, phenobarbital, topiramate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, tiagabine, vigabatrin

Which anti-epileptic agents can be used for tonic-clonic seizure?

Gabapentin, phenytoin, carbamazepine*, levetiracetam, topiramate, phenobarbital, valproic acid*, lamotrigine

MOA of carbamazepine? S/Es?

Increases Na+ channel inactivation. Diplopia, ataxia, blood dyscrasias, liver toxicity, teratogenesis, SIADH, SJS

MOA of valproic acid?

Increases Na+ channel inactivation, increases GABA concentration by inhibiting GABA transaminase

What class of drugs can be used for insomnia?

Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics

What are examples ofnonbenzodiazepine hypnotics?

Zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone

What arenonbenzodiazepine hypnotics used for?


Side effects ofnonbenzodiazepine hypnotics?

Ataxia, headaches, confusion

What class of drugs can be used for induction of anaesthesia and short surgical procedures?


What drug would be used IV for endoscopy? Any risks?

Midazolam, risks include post-op resp. depression, dec. BP, anterograde amnesia

What can be used for sedation in ICU, rapid anaesthesia inductions, and short procedures?


How does propofol work? What is it used for?

Potentiates GABA(a). Used for sedation in ICU, rapid anaesthesia induction, and short procedures.

How does dantrolene work?

Prevents Ca++ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle

What is dantrolene used for?

Malignant hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Name some anti-parkinsonian agents.

L-Dopa, carbidopa, selegiline, amantadine, bromocriptine, ropinirole, pramipexole

How do levodopa/carbidopa work?

Increase dopamine levels in brain; carbidopa is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor that increases L-dopa bioavailability centrally

How does selegiline work?

Selectively inhibits MAO-B, a preferential dopamine metabolizer

What is selegiline used for?

Adjunctive agent with L-dopa for Parkinson's disease

What is memantine?

An NMDA receptor antagonist; helps prevent excitotoxicity

List some alzheimer drugs.

Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine

How does donepezil work?

Inhibits AChE.

Side effects of donepezil?

Nausea, dizziness, insomnia

Examples of Huntington drugs?

Tetrabenazine, reserpine, Haloperidol

How does haloperidol work? Use?

Dopamine receptor antagonist. Used for huntington's.

What is sumatriptan?

A 5-HT agonist that inhibits CN V activation which prevents vasoactive peptide release thus inducing vasoconstriction

What is sumatriptan used for? S/E?

Acute migraine, cluster headaches. Risk of coronary vasospasm therefore avoid in pts with CAD/prinzmetal angina.