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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Contrast the somatic and visceral motor system with regards to:
1. principle actions governed by what area of brain
2. location of lower motorneurons
3. synaptic architecture
4. synaptic function
SOMATIC: 1. cortex frontal lobe
2. CNS 3. NMJ 4. Muscle contraction
VISCERAL: 1. subcortical areas 2.PNS 3. diffuse varicosities 4. tissue-specific function
Regarding sympathetic system anatomy,
A. preganglionic neurons are located where?
B. postganglionic neurons are located where?
A. pregangs are located in intermediolateral cell column of the thoracolumbar spinal cord (T1-L2/3)
B. postgangs (lower MNs) reside in paravertebral ganglia (= sympathetic chain ganglia) or prevertebral ganglia (= celiac, mesenteric & pelvic plexus ganglia)
So the preganglionic neurons in the lateral horn send their axons out to the ventral rootlets and to the spinal nerve (remember which is a mixed nerve) and then quickly leave the spinal nerve via the [ grey / white ] communicating ramus. The axons enter the sympathetic chain ganglia where they may or may not synapse.
A. If they synapse at that level, below or above, but within the sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia), what then happens?
B. Alternatively, where can the axons synapse if not in the sympathetic chain ganglia?
white communicating ramus;
A. send post-ganglionic fibers out back through the grey communicating ramus (grey because they are not myelinated). Entering back into the spinal nerve, they’ll travel out to innervate the target organ
B. synapse in a prevertebral ganglion
All postganglionic innervation, except for sweat glands, are [ cholinergic / noradrenergic ].

(sweat glands are the exception and are cholinergic)
For the sympathetic nervous system's preganglionic neurons located in the upper thoracic spinal cord (C8-T7), where is the location of ganglionic neurons and what are the target organs?
For the sympathetic nervous system's preganglionic neurons located in lower thoracic spinal cord (T6-T10), where is the location of ganglionic neurons and what are the target organs?
Looking at the lower thoracic and lumbar portions of the intermediolateral cell columns, we see that their ganglia are out in the celiac and mesenteric ganglions. What is the sympathetic system's influence on the digestive system and adrenal gland?
Will work to shut down digestive system – decrease peristalsis, decrease glands that have to do with secretions along the digestive system. But will stimulate adrenal gland – will pump out its secretions throughout the body.
Regarding parasympathetic system anatomy,
A. preganglionic neurons are located where?
B. postganglionic neurons are located where?
A. pregangs are located in the intermediolateral gray of sacral spinal cord and the brain stem motor nuclei (Edinger-Westphal , inferior and superior salivatory nuclei, dorsal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus)
B. postgangs (lower MNs) are in ganglia within or near target tissues. These neurons generally lack dendrites and are cholinergic.
For the parasympathetic system, what is the effect on the following target organs, in terms of location of preganglionic neuron, location of ganglionic neuron, and resulting action?
A. eye
B. lacrimal gland
C. submandibular and lingual gland
D. Parotid gland
A. Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Ciliary ganglion, Pupillary constriction and accommodation (CN III)
B & C. Superior salivatory nucleus and CN VII for both. pterygopalatine ganglion and secretion of tears for B., submandibular ganglion and secretion of saliva, vasodilation for C.
D. Inferior salivatory nucleus, otic ganglion, secretion of saliva, vasodilation (CN IX)
What two preganglionic neuorns does the heart have innervation from?

A. nucleus ambiguus and ventral motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
B. nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
C. nugleus ambiguus and superior salivatory nucleus
B. nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve
Regarding parasympathetic innervation, the vagus only reaches partway throught he GI system – up until the _________. So the rest of the digestive system receives their inn. from ______ .
transverse large intestine,

Which cranial nerves are involved in providing inn. to all the parasympathetic system?
CN III, VII, IX, X and sacral nerves
Not all tissues receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Some, like .....DO NOT receive parasympathetic innervation.
- Blood vessels and blood supply to hairs and lower extremities
- Sweat glands
- Adrenal gland

only receive sympathetic input
True or False:

Enteric neurons express a much wider array of neurotransmitters than expressed in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
True or False:

The enteric system operates independently and thus much gut function does not require coordination from higher neural centers.
The anatomy of the enteric nervous system includes [ myenteric-auerbach's / submucus- meissner's ] plexus that monitors chemical composition and glandular secretion while [ myenteric-auerbach's / submucus- meissner's ] plexus regulates musculature of gut.
submucus- meissner's = chemical comp and glandular secretion
myenteric-auerbach's = musculature of gut
GVA pathway leads to which nucleus?
Nucleus solitarius. At that level, we can have an initiation of a visceral motor response.
In addition to local circuits, we could also have information from the nucleus of the solitary tract ascend to an interconnected bunch of circuits that superimpose extra information to help determine what reaction we have. This is called the ____________.
Central Autonomic Network

and is composed of reticular formation, hypothalamus, amygdala, insular cortex (sensory info) and medial prefrontal cortex (motor control)
The referred pain is via the

A. anterolateral pathway
B. dorsal column pathway
C. spinothalamic pathway
A. anterolateral pathway

Referred pain refers to the fact you can have visceral pain that enters the spinal cord near or among the same neurons as a dorsal sensory horn neuron that is receiving sensory information from a specifc skin area. The information will travel up to the higher brain center and you will feel skin pain.

Ex. Angina pain.
How does pain get to consciouness? It travels via

A. anterolateral pathway
B. dorsal column pathway
C. spinothalamic pathway
B. dorsal column pathway, midline.

. Synapses in the dorsal column nuclei and then those dorsal column nuclei send their projections up to the thalamus and it is at the thalamus where we get the initial sensation of nociception.
What is the sympathetic and parasympathetic system's response to a rise in blood pressure?
Sympathetic system activates baroreceptors which reflexively inhibits tonic activity of preganglionic sympathetic efferents. This reduces the stimulatory affect of noradrenergic sympathetic inputs on the SA node.

Simultaneously pre-ganglionic parasympathetic neurons in the Nuc. Ambiguus are activated. This increases cholinergic release on pacemaker cells in the SA node and decreases their discharge rate.
Regarding the autonomic regulation of bladder function, [ parasympathetic / sympathetic ] innervation controls bladder musculature and bladder emptying while [ parasympathetic / sympathetic ] activity causes the internal urethral sphincter to close.
Parasympathetic ;

Regading the somatic control of urination, when bladder is distended, GVA fibers synapse onto SC neurons that project to _____________.
mid-brain periaqueductal gray areas (MPG). MPG also receives input from limbic forebrain structures which tell us when it is acceptable to urinate
Integrative signals from MPG activate ‘micturation centers’ in the pontine reticular formation. This center : activates parasympathetic neurons-(bladder contraction) and inhibits both spinal sympathetic (stops bladder relaxation) and somatic motor neuron activity –(relaxing the external sphincter) thereby eliciting urination
Horner Syndrome is caused by [ parasympathetic / sympathetic ] damage.
sympathetic damage.

Symptoms are: : ptosis, miosis, enophthalmos, and anhidrosis. You also notice the region around the affected eye seems flush. Consider: If the lesion is high, you are affecting the sympathetic output that affects the lower regions of your body (torso, etc.) whereas if its in the sympathetic chain ganglia, the effects are isolated to the head region.
What disease does this describe? This is a bilateral cyanosis of the digits caused by malfunction of the sympathetic innervation to vasculature within the skin.
Arteries to fingers and toes go into vasospasm which narrows the vessels dramatically and temporarily limits blood supply.
Raynaud's disease