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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 components of the nervous system

1. central nervous system

2. peripheral nervous system

3. autonomic nervous system

central nervous system is composed of

the brain and spinal cord

nerves and ganglia OUTside of the brain and spinal cord


associatedwith innervation of smooth and cardiac muscle ofviscera2 types


“fight orflight” responsesnervefibers arise from thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves peripheral ganglia are near the spinal cord postganglionic nerve fibers are long


“rest and digest” responsesnervefibers arise from certain cranial nerves (III, VII, IX, X; so, inbrainstem) and sacral spinal nerves (so,in sacral spinal cord)peripheral ganglia are near the target organpostganglionic nerve fibers are shortall organs of thebody except the liver are innervated


nerve cell is composed of

cell body and cell neurites such as dendrites, axons, and ganglion



from the center(cell body or central nervous system) toward a peripheral effector



from a peripheral receptor toward the center

the goal of neurological examination

Anatomiclocalization of the lesion(s) in the nervous system

localization of the lesion(s) influences differentialdiagnosis

3 parts of the brain

forebrain, cerebrum, brainstem

gyri and




grey matter

Superficial aspects of gyri,forming cerebral cortex

contains neurons

white matter

interior aspects of gyri

contains primarily axons

olfactory bulbs

at rostroventral aspect of brain

brainstem is composed of

midbrain, pons, medulla

Some texts also include thalamus under “brainstem”


centralwhite matter

longitudinalmedian ridge = vermis

2 lateral hemispheres

spinal cord segmentation

One spinal cord segment for each vertebra

exception: 8 cervical spinal cordsegments

a pair of spinal nerves for each spinal cord segment

located centrally


divided into “horns”

dorsal horns (receive sensory input)

ventral horns (project motor output)

intermediate horns (autonomic nervous system)

grey matter (SC)

located peripherally

contains myelinated axons

divided into “funiculi”

dorsal funiculi- sensory, “ascending” tracts

lateral funiculi- mixture of sensory and motor tracts

ventral funiculi- motor, “descending” tracts

white matter (SC)

major functional divisions of the spinal cord

C1-C5 (cervical)

C6-T2 (cervical “intumescence”)- segments from whichnerves to the thoracic limbs arise

T3-L3 (thoracolumbar)

L4-S3 (lumbosacral intumescence)- segments to the pelvic limbs, pelvic organs (including urinary bladder), andperineum arise

Cd segments (“cauda equina”)

spinal nerves

a. arise as roots from the spinal cord

b. a dorsal and a ventral root on each side of the cord

c. dorsal roots convey primarily sensory nerve fibers (axons) into the spinal cord

d. ventral roots convey motor nervefibers away from the spinal cord

innervate striated skeletal muscle


innervatesmooth muscle (of organs, glands, blood vessels) or cardiac muscle


where are the cell bodies of motor fibers


grey matter of the SC

a) in ventral horn if somatic fibers

b) in intermediate horn if autonomicfibers

dorsal and ventral roots fuse nearthe intervertebral space (betweenvertebrae) to form aspinal nerve

the spinal nerve is a __________ of sensory and motor components


Network of ventral branches of spinal nerves C6-T2 which gives rise tovarious specifically named nerves of the thoracic limbs

brachial plexus

Network of ventral branches of spinal nerves L4-L7 and all sacral nerveswhich give rise to specifically named nerves of the pelvic limbs, pelvicviscera, and perineum

lumbosacral plexus

how many pairs of cranial nerves?


where are the sensory ganglia?

near, but outside the brainstem

where are the motor fibers?

within the brainstem

2 portions of the autonomic nervous system

a preganglionic portion, from the CNS to a synapse in a ganglion in the PNS

a postganglionic portion, from the PNS ganglion to the “target” organ (the site of a second synapse)

3 layers of connective tissue protecting the brain

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

dura mater

one tough mother

thick, white, outer fibrous layer

arachnoid mater


middle delicate layer

thin trabeculae span thesubarachnoid space and connect to the pia mater

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows in the subarachnoidspace

pia mater

pie on the inside

innermost layer

fused to the nervous tissue

arachnoid + pia =


function of ventricular system

contains and produces cerebrospinalfluid (CSF)

Lateral Ventricles


1) longitudinally oriented inside of each cerebralhemisphere

2) connected to third ventricle by an interventricular foramen (on each side)

Third ventricle

1) dorsoventrally oriented ring, surrounding the“interthalamic adhesion” joining the 2 halves of the thalamus

2) mesencephalic aqueduct comes off its caudal aspect,and connects to the fourth ventricle

Fourth ventricle

ventral to the cerebellum

tapers caudally to form the central canal

“obex”: the level of the medulla at which the fourth ventricle becomes the spinal canal

lateral apertures of the fourth ventricle allow CSF to enter subarachnoid space


cells lining the ventricles andthe central canal of the spinal cord

choroid plexusepithelium produces...


CSF is absorbed into blood at the...

arachnoid villi

arachnoid villi

evaginations of the arachnoid into dural venous sinuses on the convex surfaces of the brain

although the brain and spinal cordaccount for only about 2% of the total body weight, the CNS receives about ______%of the total cardiac output of blood because of its high metabolic rate andhigh oxygen demands


membrane potential is determined by 3 things

1) the concentration of ions across the plasma membrane

2) the actions of membrane pumps

3) the permeabilities of the membrane created by ion channels

an action potential is generated when...

the membrane potential at the axon hillock “depolarizes” enough to reach “threshold” potential

3 things that influence the rate of action potentials along the axon

a. diameter of the axon (faster velocity in larger fibers)

b. number (density) of ion channels in the plasma membrane

c. whether axons are myelinated or unmyelinated

conduction of the action potential by jumping from one node of Ranvier tothe nextmakes action potential conduction much faster

saltatory conduction

Neurons are connected to each other by 2 differenttypes of synapses (name two types)

chemical and electrical

chemical synapses

1.cNT from vesicles in the axon move across the synaptic cleft btw the pre-and post-syn.mem.

2.the AP stimulates release of thechem NT from the axon terminus

3.the NT binds to receptors on thepost-synaptic membrane, triggering a change in the post-synaptic mem. pot.

Most synapses are chemical, including NMJ's

electrical synapses

gap junctions (protein pores) in plasma membranes between 2 cells

conductionof membrane potential changes across an electricalsynapse between neurons is faster than across a chemical synapse, but there isno processing of information, and conduction can go ineither direction

Excitatory NTs

-open ion channels to allow extracellularpositively charged ions (e.g., sodium) into thecell by diffusion

-less negative membrane potential

-glutamate and acetylcholine are excitatoryneurotransmitters

1) both found in CNS

2) Ach is the NT at NMJs

Inhibitory NTs

-open ion channels to allow extracellularnegatively charged ions (e.g., chloride) into thecell by diffusion, or

intracellularpositively charged ions (e.g., potassium)to diffuse out

-more negative membranepotential

-(GABA) is the majorinhibitory NT in the brain, and glycine is the major inhibitoryNT in the SC

neurons can beconsidered excitatory or inhibitory because...

an individual neuron will release only 1 type ofneurotransmitter

a recipient neuron can receive input fromboth excitatory and inhibitory neurons