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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When do neuromotor disorders occur?
Prior to birth or during the birth process
What is the focus of OT intervention when working with a child who has a neuromotor disorder?
helping the child improve their ability to perform a desired occupation and participate to the child's fullest extent
Cerebral Palsy is caused by...
a hypoxic event
(REMEMBER--> reading about premature births and hemorrhages in the brain? Yeah, this can be a result.)
What's the prevalence rate of CP in 1st world countries?
2.5-3 per 1,000 live births
CP Classifications: list the TYPES of CP
Spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic
CP Classifications: list the DISTRIBUTION of CP
Hemiplegia (one half of the body is more affected than the other), diplegia (legs), quadriplegia (all 4 limbs)
CP Classifications: list the SEVERITY of CP
Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification Systems (MACS...for hand use)
***What's the most common type of CP and some of its characteristics?
Spastic CP has hypertonia and hyperreflexia; results from damage to cortical areas of brain or white matter projections to or from the cortical areas
***What are some characteristics of dyskinetic CP?
Athetosis (slow, writhing hand and feet movements), chorea (involuntary spasms of the limbs or facial mms), dystonia (abnormal mms tone), hypotonia; usu. result of damage to basal ganglia and thalamic region of the brain
***What are some characteristics of ataxic CP?
Hypotonia; cerebellar in origin
Name the two primary impairments in CP
motor and postural
What are some other common impairments in CP?
strabisms, nystagmus, dysarthria, aphasia
What causes spina bifida?
SB is a congenital defect where the neural tube fails to close during the 4th week of gestation
***What can women take to help prevent SB?
Folic acid!
Where do defects occur in SB?
anywhere along the spinal cord

***in lower lumbar/sacral region- can walk with braces or crutches
***in mid-level lumbar region- needs significant support to walk, such as braces, crutches, or walker
***in upper-level and above- generally need a wheelchair to move about
What are the prevalence rates for SB?
1 in 2,000 live births in developed countries; SB affects girls more than boys
What are the 2 forms of SB?
SB Occulta and SB Cystica
What are some characteristics of SB occulta?
Mildest form of SB, when a gap is in one or more vertebral arches, but the cord and meninges remain in the spinal canal
What are some characteristics of SB cystica?
most sever form of SB; protrusion of cord and meninges through the vertebral arch;
What are 2 things associated with SB Cystica?
Meningocyle (only meninges and CSF poke out) and myelomeningocele (everything, including spinal cord, pokes out)
What percentage of children with SB also develop hydrocephalus?
***What is the Arnold-Chiari Type II malformation?
In children with SB who have developed hydrocephalus, this malformation is a downward herniation of the cerebellum and portion of the brain stem in the spinal cord
What is the hallmark of Muscular Dystrophy (MD) and Spinal Muscular Dystrophy (SMA)?
progressive muscle weakness and atrophy; they are differentiated by the muscle pathology and the pattern of genetic inheritance
***what is myopathy?
a disease of the muscle that causes muscles to wither
What's the most common form of MD? What's it caused by, and what's its prevalence rate?
Duchenne is caused by an x-linked recessive genetic mutation; 3 in 100,000 live births
What causes Spinal muscular dystrophy? What's its prevalence rate?
SMA is a disorder of the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord and motor cells of the cranial nuclei; 1 in 10,000 live births
What are some common types of MD?
Duchenne and Beckner
What are some common types of SMA?
Infantile: Werdnig-Hoffman disease;
Intermediate: Dubowitz disease;
Juvenile: Kugelberg-welander disease
Do children with MD and SMA live long, full lives?
Not typically. The skeletal and smooth muscles are affected and the disorders usually lead to premature death
What is developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and what's its prevalence rate?
motor coordination difficulties that significantly impair everyday activities and have no other diagnosable cuase...no clear brain/spinal cord damage; affects 50-60 children per 1,000
How can children with DCD learn?
no by watching and imitating, but by repeated practice
List some tools to assess children with neuromotor disorders...
COPM, Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS), Ped Activity card sort (PACS), Preschool Activity Card Sort, Child Occupational Self Assessment (COSA), Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Sensory integration and praxis test, sensory profile
What are some direct therapy approaches?
Task specific instructions; Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP), Family centered functional therapy (FCFT)
***What are the 3 types of Spinal Muscular Atrophies?
Type I- aka acute infantile SMA or Werdnig-Hoffmann disease- most rapidy progressive SMA, starts in utero or before 6 mo. old, typically child doesn't live beyond 2-3 years old.

Type II- aka chronic or intermediate SMA, occurs lat infancy/early childhood, can ambulate and live to adulthood.

Type III- aka Kugelberg-Welander syndrome, lease progressive, onset 5-15 years old, ambulate well into adulthood