• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is deerebrate rigidity posturing?

A postural change that occurs in some comatose patients

What is coma?

Totally unaware of anything

-absence of any cerebrally mediated motor response to noxious stimuli

Three common causes of coma?

Dysfunction of damage of the

Cerebral cortex

Reticular formation -nuclei of reticular formation damaged not ascending pathways

Thalamus- so cortex can't receive input

What are other functions that can cause coma's?

Metabolic (toxic)

-Liver failure (liver doesn't detoxify chemicals in the body anymore, so toxins build up which are toxic to neurons and shut down normal cellular function)

-Renal failure (can do same thing as above)

When is a clinical drug induced coma administered?

Done to minimize bleeding

What is the Glasgow coma score?

Scored between 3=worst and 15=best

-4 points based on eye movement

-5 points based on verbal response

-6 points based on best motor response

(add the scores from the three categories)

What is the definition of brain death?

Irreversible loss of clinical function of the whole brain, including the brainstem

What are the 3 cardinal signs of brain death?

Coma-cerebral unresponsivity

Absence of brainstem reflexes-cardiovascular reflexes, gag reflex...

Apnea-absence of spontaneous respiration

What does an EEG measure?

Electrical activity of the brain

(the summed post synaptic potentials)

What are the characteristics of an EEG?

Frequency (2-20 Hz)-number of oscillations per second

Amplitude (20-100mV)-the ups and downs

What do the Rhythm generators in the thalamus control?

The frequency/ oscillations per second

What is normal sleep?

An altered state of consciousness

others=hypnotic state, delirium

What is the circadian rhythm?

Biologic clock that cycles everything for 24 hour periods,

-natural physiological processes that vary throughout the day

What are types of activites under circadian rhythm






What nucleus is in charge of maintaining the circadian rhythms?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

-contains retinal cells and is sensitive to light

What part of the brain is the suprachiasmatic nucleus located?


(supraoptic region above the optic chiasm)

How is sleep affected by the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

It is influenced by but not controlled by it

What special sense is closely linked to the suprachiasmatic nucleus?


-receives retinal input from eyes

some of the neurons from the optic pathway are siphoned off and synapse with suprachiasmatic nucleus and cause up or down regulation of genes which produce proteins and the cells produced then project to and influence other parts of body

Where is the sleep center of the pons located?

Reticular formation of the pons

-inhibitory in nature so it shuts down the reticular formation and puts us to sleep

What two areas are in a constant battle for your state of consciousness?

ARAS and sleep center of the pons

ARAS=excitatory (if wins then you are alert)

sleep center=inhibitory

What aspects of sleep indicate that it is an active process?

-No general inhibition of neural activity (brain still working very hard)

-Blood flow and O2 demand do not decrease

What are the 3 major sleep-wakefulness stages?

Waking stage

Slow wave sleep (non-REM sleep)

REM sleep

What are the 3 stages of the waking stage?

alert wakefulness (Beta rhythm >13)

relaxed wakefulness (Alpha rhythem (8-13))

relaxed drowsiness (Decrease in alpha (closer to 8))

How do you enter slow-wave sleep?

You enter from one of the stages of wakefulness

What are the characteristics of slow-wave sleep?

There are no dreams

Primarily used for rest

MM tension is reduced but not eliminated

Movement is minimal but possible

How many stages are in slow-wave sleep?

4 stages,

it takes 45 minutes to cycle through them

Then you cycle backwards through them and that's another 45 minutes

-you decrease frequency and increase amplitude as you go through the stages

What are the different EEG frequencies/rhythms?


Beta- >13 Hz

Alpha- 13-8 Hz

Theta- 8-4 Hz

Delta- 2 Hz

Describe the four stages of slow-wave sleep?

Stage 1- light sleep, easily aroused by mod stimuli (alpha-rhythm transitions to theta rhythm (8-4 Hz))

Stage 2-Further lack of sensitivity to activation and arousal-predominantly theta rhythm

Stage 3-Deep sleep -theta transitions to delta

Stage 4-deep deep sleep - delta rhythm (2Hz)

When does REM sleep occur?

After one complete cycle of slow-wave sleep (takes about 90 minutes)

How long does REM last?

About 20 minutes

gets longer as the night progresses

-paradox because EEG resembles that of a person who is awake, oxygen use is higher than when you are awake

How is REM the deepest state of sleep and also the lightest state of sleep?

Deepest-bc it requires the greatest external arousability

Lightest-based on internal arousability