• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some myelin forming cells?
Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Schwann Cells (PNS)
What is the major component of the white matter?
T or F: Oligodendrocytes myelinate one segment of many axons
T or F: Schwann Cells myelinate multiple segments of multiple axons
False! Schwann cells myelinate one segment of one axon
What are the components of the white matter?
Blood vessels
What do oligos look like with H&E stain?
fried eggs
What is silver stain used for?
visualize axons
What characterizes dz of myelin formation or maintenance by intrnsic (genetic) causes? (metabolic disease)
What is dz of normally formed myelin caused by extrinsic (exogenous) cause? (acquired disease)
demyelinating disease
T or F: in demyelinating diseases, axons are well preserved
What are some immune-mediated demyelinating diseases?
Multiple Sclerosis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Acute hemorrhagic leukocephalitis
What are some viral causes of demyelinating diseases?
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopy (PML) from JC virus
What are some toxic causes of demyelinating diseases?
osmotic myelinolysis
solvent vapor abuse
What are some vascular causes of demyelinating diseases?
Subcortical arteriosclerotic leukoencephalopathy (Binswanger disease)
What are some histo characteristics of MS?
1. myelin degeneration w/ preservation of axons
2. MS plaques
3. perivascular of inflammatory cells
How do you dx MS?
MRI and detection of oligoclonal IgG bands isoelectric focusing in the CSF (80%)
What are Dawson's fingers?
perpindicular excursion of perivenous inflammation seen on MR of MS.
What are some favorite sites for MS plaques?
Optic nerves, radiations, periventricular white matter
What does the luxol fast blue stain of the white matter show?
What are the main causes of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?
measles, varicella, rubella
When does acute disseminated encephalomyelitis show up?
several days to weeks after exanthematous viral infections
What does an MR of ADEM look like?
multiple asymmetric foci in white matter.
Perivenous inflammatory infiltrates w/ monophasic demyelination --> __
What causes PML?
Papova virus (JC) infection
Who gets PML?
immuno-compromised pts (sarcoid, TB, AIDS, Cancer, Transplant)
What is the hallmark of PML
Multiple foci of demyelination in subcortical white matter in early lesion
What is the hallmark gross inspection of PML look like?
rat bitten, moth eaten, chewed up corpus callosum
T or F: Viral cytopathic effect is seen in PML
T or F: multinucleated astorcytes are common in PML
T or F: There is very little inflammation in PML and AIDS leukoencephalopathy?
What is the cine qua non of AIDS leukoencephalopathy?
multinucleated giant cells expressing HIV viral antigens
T or F: AIDS leukoencephalopathy shows lots of histo evidence of myelin degeneration
false! Very little
What causes central pontine myelinolysis?
rapid correction of serum electrolyte imbalance
What is the hallmark of central pontine myelinolysis?
Demyelination in the central pontine base
T or F: leukodystrophies affect both the CNS and the PNS
What is contained in macrophages in ALD?
long chain fatty acid
What is contained in macrophages in MLD?
What is contained in macrophages in GLD?
What do the leukodystrophies preserve despite the white matter demyelination?
subcortical U-fibers
What is the inheritance of ALD and AMN?
X-linked recessive
What is a useful diagnostic marker of ALD and AMN?
elevated long chain fatty acid in tissue
Demyelination of predominatly occipital white matter --> __
What is the hallmark feature (gross) of leukodystrophies?
preservation of the subcortical U fibers (thin rim near cortex)
What is the most common leukodystrophy?
MLD --> __
arylsulfatase A deficiency
what is the inheritance of MLD?
What is the deficiency in Krabbe Disease (GLD)?
galactosylceramidase (galactocerebrosidase) deficiency
what is the inheritance of Krabbe (GLD)?
Contrast enhancing lesion of the brain -->
metastatic tumor or radiation induced demyelination
Define demyelinating disease
d/o relayed to the selective loss of myelin in the CNS
Define Multiple Sclerosis
A chronic demyelinating dz w/ sx referable to multiple locations in the CNS over time
What is transverse myelitis?
demyelinating dz of the spinal cord
What is optic neuritis??
demyelinating dz of the optic nerve
What is the mean age of MS dx?
What are some signs of MS?
sensory deficits
relative afferent pupillary defect
intranuclear opthalmoplegia
What is Lermitte's sign?
an electric-shock like sensation felt down the spine when the head is flexed forwards.
Intranuclear opthalmoplegia is a lesion of what?
What does MRI of MS look like?
periventricular white matter lesions
What does LP of MS show?
oligoclonal bands in the CSF
What is the treatment of MS?
immune modulating therapies (steroids, interferons, monoclonal Abs)
The mainstay of MS is __
symptomatic (treat whatever problems they have)
T or F: Physical measures (like bracing) are not useful in MS
What is the clinical course of MS?
normal life expectancy
need a wheelchair 20 yrs after dx
highly variable course