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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the major cell populations in the CNS?
1. Neurons
2. Oligodendrocytes and their myelin sheaths
3. Astrocytes
What two cell types make up the glial cells?
oligodendrocytes and astrocytes
Where are the glial cells located (white or grey)?
grey matter
What composes the white matter of the brain?
axonal processes of the neurons and glial cells (astros and oligos)
what type of cells have perinuclear clearing?
what cells line the ventricals?
columnar/cuboidal, ciliated EPENDYMAL cells
What produces CSF?
choroid plexus in lateral, 3rd and 4th ventricles
What are the leptomeninges?
arachnoid + pia (covering of outer surface of brain)
In what space is the CSF located?
subarachnoid (b/w arachnoid and pia)
What is the brain correlate of fibroblasts?
What is Wallerian degeneration?
degeneration of an axon distal to an injury
Walk through neuron injury in the CNS.
1. distal axon degenerates
2. 2'ary myelin degeneration
3. macrophages come in and eat up myelin
4. astrocytes proliferate (reactive gliosis) and produce lots of INTRACELLULAR glial filaments which form glial scar
5. proximal neuron is non-functional
At what level is the BBB?
brain capillary
Which types of drugs easily cross the BBB?
lipid soluble
What controls the extracellular environment of the brain?
What things cause BBB breakdown?
inflammation, tumors, trauma, infarcts, etc. (anything that causes leaky blood vessels)
Why do tumors breakdown the BBB?
b/c tumors make their own (leaky) capillaries
How does breakdown of the BBB lead to extracellular edema?
leakage of proteins into extracellular space draws water.
White or Grey: more extracellular edema
What is vasogenic brain edema?
extracellular edema due to increased permeability of brain caps (breakdown of BBB, white matter)
What is cytotoxic brain edema?
intracellular edema from osmotic imbalance (grey matter)
define hydrocephalus
enlargement of ventricles due to obstruction of the bulk flow of CSF
What is noncommunicating hydrocephalus?
obstruction w/in the ventricular system (aqueductal stenosis)
What is communicating hydrocephalus?
obstruction w/in the subarachnoid space or arachnoid villi
what is hydrocephalus ex vacuo?
ventriculomegaly from loss of brain tissue (atrophy)
What is a Dandy-Walker malformation?
hindbrain malformation defined by the triad of:
1. hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis
2. cystic dilitation of 4th ventricle
3. enlargement of posterior fossa
What is a Chiari II malformation (Arnold-Chiari malformation)?
hindbrain malformation that is closely assoc w/ meningiomyelocele
What is the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)?
What are clinical signs of increased ICP?
HA, N/V, papiledema
Give some causes of increased ICP
1. Mass lesion
2. Hydrocephalus
3. Diffuse brain edema
4. Obstruction of major dural sinus
5. Ididopathic (pseudotumor cerebri)
What are some signs of left mass lesion in the brain?
left-to-right subfalcine herniation (singulate gyrus crosses midline displaces falx cerebri)
transtentorial herniation of the temporal lobe (uncal going down) or diencephalon (central herniation)
tonsillar herniation
What are the sx of uncal herniation syndrome?
dilated ipsilateral pupil
contralateral hemiplegia
coma, dilated pupils, abnormal respirations, etc.
Again, what are the two major consequences of intracranial mass lesions?
increased ICP and brain shifts w/ herniation
How can you detect open NTD?
elevated AFP in serum or amniotic fluid and by fetal U/S
What is craniorachisisis totalis?
failure of closure of the entire neural tube
what is anencephaly?
failure of neural tube closure limited to anterior neuropore
What is an encephalocele?
very restricted NTD (usually at base of skull)
What is a myelomeningocele?
failure of neural tube closure limited to region of posterior neuropore
Are there neurologic deficits w/ a myelomeningocele?
Are there neurologic deficits w/ a meningocele?
No! Normal spinal cord and no deficits
What is holoprosencephaly?
failure of prosencephalon to divide the forebrain into two cerebral hemispheres
Midline facial defects are associated with what defect?
What is neuronal heterotopia?
localized neuronal migration defect
What are pacygyria (few wide gyri) and agyria (smooth brain) (lissencephaly) examples of?
widespread neuronal migration defects
What is polymicrogyria?
too many gyri. caused by malformation or acquired process that leads to destruction of cortex