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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two sets of branches from the dorsal aorta that supplies brain
1. anterior circulation: internal carotid artery

2. posterior circulation: vertebral artery
The internal carotid artery comes from what artery?
Common carotid artery
Vertebral artery comes from which artery?
Subclavian artery
Which circulation supplies the forebrain?
anterior circulation
Which circulation supplies the brainstem, cerebellum, and upper spinal cord?
Posterior circulation
What's so cool about the posterior cerebral artery?
It's supplied by both carotid and vertebral arteries; responsible for both anterior and posterior circulations.
What artery is on the ventral side of the pons?
Basilar artery
What is the circle of willis?
1.anterior communicating artery
2. posterior communicating artery
Advantage of circle of Willis
If one side gets blocked, the other side can supply blood still
If block middle cerebral artery, deficits in
motor, sensory or language, since it supplies central and lateral cerebral hemispheres, including sensorimotor areas in face/upper extremities and language
If you block anterior cerebral artery
Learning problems because damage to cingulate gyrus (part of limbic system)
If you block the posterior cerebral artery
1. visual (occipital cortex)
2. memory/emotion (parahippocampal and amygdala)
Internal capsule connects
cortex with spinal cord/limbic etc.
posterior inferior cerebellar artery - supply brainstem.
anterior inferior cerebellar artery - supply brainstem
Venous drainage - 3 sinuses?
1. cavernous sinus
2. superior sagittal sinus
3. transverse sinus (which connects with internal jugular vein)
Which structure in brain connects posterior and anterior circulation?
Circle of willis
Which structure in spinal cord connects posterior and anterior circulation?
If you block anterior spinal artery, what disfunction?
motor problems, because you loss circulation to ventral horn.
If you block posterior spinal artery, what kind of problems?
Sensory. Block dorsal root ganglion circulation.
If anything wants to exit capillary in brain, it must pass through
a winding tight junction in endothelial cell membrane.
What molecules can pass through blood brain barrier?
no big molecules. Only lipid soluble small molecules, glucose (polar, so needs a special glucose transporters).
Capillaries in brain are surrounded by
astrocyte end feet which stimulate endothelial cells to form tight junctions. Also provides physical barrier
3 protective layers that surround and support the brain
1. dura matter
2. arachnoid matter
3. pia mater

note: there's a space between 2 and 3 filled with CSF
what connects lateral and 3rd ventricles?
interventricular foramen of monro
2 unique foramen in 4th ventricle where CSF comes out to subarachnoid space:
1. foramen of magendie
2. foramena of luschka

note: if CSF can't escape, it accumulates and increases brain pressure. Hydrocephalis. Need to drain using shunt.
What does the choroid plexus produce?
how many vertebral arteries are there?
2; left and right.
if you knock out anterior spinal artery, lose what function?
motor, because loss of circulation to ventral horn.
what occlusion will cause loss of vision?
posterior cerebral artery
blocking anterior cerebral artery could result in
1. sensorimotor to lower limbs
2. accessory motor area in the cingulate gyrus that govern the upper face, and
3. limbic areas in the medial frontal lobe
Describe the path of CSF
1. made by choroid plexus
2. lateral ventricle
3. foramen of monro
4. 3rd ventricle
5. cerebral aqueduct
6. 4th ventricle
7. foramen of magendie
8. spinal cord
the occlusion of CSF leading to increased intercranial pressure.
What are the deep penetrating branches of the middle cerebral artery?
Lenticulostriate arteries
Which artery, which arises from the internal carotid artery, supplies the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, globes pallid us, internal capsule, choroid plexus, and lateral ventricles?
Anterior choroidal artery
What are the two dorsolateral arteries that supply distinct regions of the medulla and pons?
what brain region modulates activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and is degenerate in Alzheimers?
Basal forebrain nuclei
What arteries supply posterior circulation?
Vertebral and basilar arteries.
What artery supplies the anterior circulation?
Internal carotid artery