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79 Cards in this Set

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Sensory

detects changes in internal and external environment

motor

initiates muscle contraction and gland secretion

integrative

analyzed and stores information, higher functioning and reasoning

anatomical divisions of nervous system

central and peripheral

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

all neural tissue


nerves


ganglia


plexuses

functional divisions of PNS

sensory and motor

sensory PNS

send information TO the CNS



PNS TO CNS

motor PNS

FROM CNS TO effectors


(effectors being glands, muscles etc.)



autonomic and somatic*

subdivided Motor PNS

Somatic and autonomic

somatic motor PNS

controls skeletal muscles



conscious control

autonomic motor PNS

controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands



dont consciously control

cells in neural tissue

neurons



glial cells

neurons

perform communication, info processing and control functions



production of electrical signals

glial cells

support and protect neurons



outnumber neurons

parts of a neuron

dendrites axon and cell body

dendrites

receive information

axon

send information

axoplasm

cytoplasm of axon

axoplasmic transport

movement of substances along the axon



*movement occurs in both directions



sensory neurons

located in sensory ganglia.


FROM receptors to CNS.

motor neurons

motor division of PNS


CNS to visceral or skeletal muscles or glands

somatic motor neurons

cell bodies located in CNS.


control skeletal muscles

visceral motor neurons



Autonomic

control smooth muscles, glands and cardiac muscle

interneurons

most abundant type of neurons


in brain and spinal cord



the more complex the response is, the more interneurons are being used.


*involved in higher functioning

ependymal cells

line the CSF spaces in CNS.



helps circulate CSF

astrocytes

maintain blood brain barrier


most abundant glial cell


scar tissue in CNS after injury

microglia

migrate through neural tissue in CNS


engulf cell debris and pathogens

oligodendrocytes

mylenate axons in CNS of multiple axons



*No neurolemma

schwann cells

mylenate SINGLE axon in PNS

Myelination

wrapping insulation around axons

myelin

lipid and protein material in concentric layers around axon



increases electrical speed

neurolemma

ring of cytoplasm of the schwann cell which surrounds myelin



*important in axon regeneration

nodes

gaps in myelin

demyelination

progressive loss of myelin


results in loss of sensation and motor control

multiple sclerosis

immune system attacks myelin

white matter

contain masses of MYELENATED axons


gray matter

contain cell bodies and dendrites *No myelin

Nerves

bundles of axons in the PNS surrounded by connective tissue

tracts

bundles of axons in the CNS without connective tissue

ganglia

clusters of cell bodies in neurons of PNS

primary tumors

originate in CNS


cell division of abnormal glial cells

secondary tumors

metastatic: spread into CNS

the cell has a slight _________ charge

negative

the slight negative charge of cells in because of

unequal distribution of ions across the membrane

resting potential is

-70 mV

changes in the RMP result in 2 kinds of electrical signals

graded and action potentials

graded potential

in dendrites and cell bodies

action potentials

in axons

[Na]+ is

outside the cell

[K]+ is

on the inside of cells

two types of channels

leakage and gated channels

leakage channels

permenantly open


allow free passage of sodium and potassium

gated channels

only open in response to stimuli

2 types of gated channels

chemically and voltage gated

chemically gated channels

open in response to neurotransmitters


occur in dendrites



*graded potentials

voltage gated channels

closed at resting potential


open in response to voltage changes


occur in axons



*action potentials

graded potentials

occur in dendrites and cell bodies


binding of neurotransmitters to receptors


chemically gated channels



size of potential varies with amount of NTS


2 types

2 types of graded potentials

depolarization and hyperpolarization

depolariztion

upward toward 0

hyperpolariation

downward further from threshold

action potential

axon-voltage-electrical-



2 types

2 types of voltage gated channels

[Na] and [K]

[Na]+ ion

open when the RMP is depolarized



inflow of Na+ further depolarizes the axon

[K]+ ion channel

opens at depolarization but are slower to react


K rushes out because the concentration gradient



repolarization

movement of action potential

from initial segment down the axon

does action potential diminish with distance?

nope

does graded potential diminish with distance?

yuppers

2 types of movement of action potential

continuous and saltitory

continuous propagation

occurs only in unmyelinated axons



slow

saltitory propagation

occurs in myelinated axons



fast

speed of action potentials depends on axons-

diameter and myelination

synapse

site of communication between 2 neurons

presynaptic

axon- send signal

postsynaptic

dendrite-receives signal

message sent in synapse is called

neurotransmitter

graded potential 2 types

*dendrites and cell bodies -neurotransmitter-chemically opened channels (depolarization and hyperpolarization)



depolarizion (EPSP)



hyperpolarization (IPSP)

removal of neurotransmitters (3)

diffusion, breakdown and reabsorption

which axons might have a chance at regeneration

PNS