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138 Cards in this Set

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What is white matter?

Composed of myelinated axon

What is gray matter?

Composed of neuron somas

What is a tract?

Bundles of Axon in CNS

What is a nerve?

bundles of Axon in PNS

What is a ganglion ?

Group of neuron somas in PNS

What is Nucleus/center?

Group of neuron somas in CNS

What is Menings? what is the functions?

Connective tissue layers around CNS




Functions: Protection, Stabilization

Whats the 3 layers of the menings?

Duramater(outer), Arachnoid, Piamater(Inner)

Is duramater the thickest layer? is it in direct contact with the bone? Yes or No

Yes




No

Whats a epidural hematoma?

when the epidural space fills up with blood

Whats the epidural space ?

The space between duramater and bone

Whats the subdural space?

The space between the arachnoid and duramater

Whats the piamater?

stuck on the surface on the nervous tissue of brain & spinal cord

What does the subarachrnoid space contain? Is it the only space that contain something in it?

Cerebraspinal fluid (acts as layer of protection for the brain &spinal cord shock absorber)




Yes

Where is the Brain located?

Cranial Cavity

Whats the 3 functions of the Brain?

Sensory perception


Motor Control


Integration

Whats the 6 Regions of the brain?

Cerebrum


Cerebellium


Diencephalon


Midbrain


Pons


Medulla Oblagota

Whats the Gyris & Sulcus of the Cerebrum?Why are they there ?

Gyris - Raised ridge of tissue




Sulcus - Shallow Groove




Increase surface area of Brain mater(Neuron somas)

Whats the names of the 3 locations of the Sulcus? Whats a lobe?

Central


Parietal Occipital


Lateral



Functional area of the cerebrum

Whats the 3 function of the Frontal lobe?

Personility


Reasoning


Initiate Voluntary Motor Control

Where would you have initiating Voluntary Motor Control?

Precentral Gyris

Where is your Personality , Reasoning localized at?

Frontal Lobe

Whats the 1 function of your Parietal Lobe?

General Sensory Perception

Where would you have General Sensory Perception localized?

Post Central Gyrus

Whats the 1 function of your Occipital Lobe?

Visual Perception

Whats the 2 functions of your Temporal Lobe?

Auditory Perception


Short Term memory

Whats a Fissure on the surface cerebrum?

Deep groove on the surface cerebrum

Where is the sagital found?

Down the center of the cerebrum

How many hemispheres does the cerebrum have?

2

The hemispheres also exhibit what you call ________? What do that term mean ?

Asymmetry






They gonna be very different on what they do

Whats the 3 types of Tracts?

Association


Commissural


Projection

What do a Association tract do?

Connect areas within the soma hemisphere?

What do a Commissural Tract do?

Connect the two hemispheres Corpus Callosum

What do a Projection Tract do?

Connect the cerebrum with all the regions of the brain & spinal Cord allow neurons in the cerebrum to communicate

Whats the 2 different types of the Projection tracts? What do they do?

Descending- Relays motor info from cerebrum down


Ascending- Relays sensory info from other brain regions/ spinal cord up

Whats the function of the Basal Nuclei of the Cerebrum?

Regulate Voluntary motor movement

If you cant control Voluntary movement what you would start to get is ________?

involuntary contractions

Whats the 4 main diseases or pathologies that are associated with the Basal Nuclei not being able to work properly?

Parkinson's Disease


Huntington's Disease


Hemiballism


Tardive dyskinesia

Whats Parkinson's Disease?

Decrease level of Dopamine when you don't have the neurotransmitter it causes the basal nuclei to not function




No cure

Whats Huntington's Disease?

It Genetic




Part of the basal Nuclei Disappear causes memory loss

Whats hemiballism?

Stroke damages part of one side of basal nuclei

Whats Tadive Dyskinesia?

Doctor induced in people that have Schigophrenic they have a increase amount of dopamine the doctor give medication to decrease the dopamine which could cause Parkinson

Whats the 3 functions of the Cerebellum?

*Maintain Muscle Tone


*Regulate balance (equilibrium)


*Regulate coordination of agonist + antagonist muscle

Whats the 3 structures of the Diencephalon?

Pineal Gland


Thalamus


Hypothalmus

What is the 1 thing the Pineal Gland of the Diencephalon do?

Make Melatonin

What is the 1 thing the Thalamus of the Diencephalon do ?

Relay Station for all sensory information

What are the 5 things the Hypothalmus of the Diencephalon do and 2 hormones it make?

Regulates body tempature , hunger, thirst center, emotional processing, link between nervous + endocrine system



Makes 2 hormones: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), Oxytocin

Whats the superior colliculi of the Mid Brain and Whats the inferior collicui of the Mid Brain?

Visual Reflexes




Auditory Reflexes

What do the Pneumotaxic Center & Apneustic Center of the Pons do?

Alter respiration rate + Depth of breathing

What do the Respiratory Rhythimicity Center of the Medulla do?

Breathing inhaling & exhaling

What do the Cardiovascular Center of the Medulla do?

Regulate heart rate + Blood Pressure

What is the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) made of?

Chonoid Plexus

What are the 2 parts of the Chonoid Plexus ?

Capillaries(have pores)


Ependynal Cells

Is Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) a filtrate of blood? CSF is produced all the time

Yes

CSF Circulate through ventricular System lateral ventricule 2-in each verebral hemisphere/ 3rd Ventricule- in midline of diencephalon/ Cerebral aqueduct- in midline of mid brain/ 4th Ventricule between cerbellium and pon/ Medulla reabsorbed by Arachnoid villi

......

What do the word nerve mean?

Group of axons in a PNS

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve I__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Olfactory


Sensory


Smell

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve II__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Optic


Sensory


Vision

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve III__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Oculormotor


Motor(Somatic,Parasympathic)


Eye Movement



Whats the name of Cranial Nerve IV__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Trochlear


Motor(Somatic)


Eye Movement



Whats the name of Cranial Nerve V__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Trigenimal


Mixed (Somatic)


Feel Sensation, Move mandible for chewing





Whats the name of Cranial Nerve VI__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Abducens


Motor(Somatic)


Eyeball Movement



Whats the name of Cranial Nerve VII__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Facial


Mixed (Somatic, Parasympathic)


Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue


Muscle of facial expression



Whats the name of Cranial Nerve VIII__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Vestibulocochlear


Sensory


Hearing

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve IX__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Glosspharygeal


Mixed (Somatic, Parasympathetic)


Taste from 1/3 of tongue


Motor-somatic-Elevate Pharyx


Parasympathetic- Glandular secreation from 1 of 3 salivatory glands

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve X__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Vagus


Mixed


Sensory-senation from organs of thoraic abdominal cavities


Motor Somatic- Swallowing & sound production


Parasympathetic- to organ of thoracic & abdominal cavities





What Cranial Nerve can a person die from

XVagus

Whats the name of Cranial Nerve XI__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Acessory


Motor (Somatic)


Shoulder & Head Movement



Whats the name of Cranial Nerve XII__________. What is the type of it Sensory, Motor, Mixed? What is the function of it?

Hypoglossal


Motor (Somatic)


Tongue Movement (Inveterate skeletal muscle, speak)

What are the Cranial Nerves that's Sensory only?

I.(1) Olfactory


II.(2) Optic


VIII.(8) Vestibulocochlear

What are the Cranial Nerves that inveterate the tongue ?

VII.(7) Facial


IX.(9) Glosspharygeal


XII.(12) Hypoglossal

Whats the Cranial Nerves that just involve tongue movement ?

XII.(12) Hypoglossal

What are the Cranial Nerves that inveterate taste from the tongue ?

VII.(7) Facial


IX.(9) Glosspharygeal

What are the Cranial Nerves that is involved with eye movement ?

III.(3) Oculormotor


IV.(4) Trochlear


VI.(6) Abducens

What are the Cranial Nerves that have somatic & Parasympathic ?

III.(3) Oculormotor
VII.(7) Facial


IX.(9) Glosspharygeal


X.(10) Vagus



In which cavity would you find the spinal cord

Veretebral

Is the Spinal Cord part of the CNS or PNS?

CNS

What is the spinal Cord surround by ______?

Menings

What is stuck to the surface of the Spinal Cord?

Pia Mater

What is the space between the Achrnoid & Pia Mater? Should there be anything in that space yes or no if yes what?

Subarachrnoid space


Yes


Cerebraspinal fluid

Between the Duramater & Achrnoid whats that space? Should there be anything there? Yes or No

Subdural Space


No

Between the Duramater & Bone Whats that space? What is around the spinal cord of it?



Epidural Space


Adipose Tissue for protection

What is the white matter of the spinal cord composed of?

Projection tracts

What is a projection Tract

Bundle of

What do Neuron somas do?

Process information

The Neuron Somas in the brain mater have the ability to process 2 basic types of information __________ & __________ information?

Sensory


Motor

What does the Central Canal Contain?

Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)

Dorsal Horn process ____________ information?

Sensory

Ventral Horn process ____________ information?

Motor

The Ventral Horn is going to contain what functional type of neuron? Afferent, Efferent, Interneuron

Efferent Neuron soma

How is the axon thru that efferent neuron going to be able to leave the spinal cord and go to muscle tissue? How does motor information get out of the spinal cord?

Thru the Ventral root


Thru the Ventral root





The Ventral Root contain ________?

Efferent Axon

The Dorsal Root Ganglion contain ________?

Afferent Neuron Soma

The Dorsal Root is how the sensory information is getting into your spinal cord what would happen if you was to cut all your dorsal root?


Wont be able to feel anything

What is it called when Dorsal Root & Ventral Root merge together? is it a mixed Nerve? Yes or No

Spinal Nerve


Yes

Where is the start of your spinal cord ? Its continuous with what brain region the __________? Where is it that the Spinal Cord ends?

Starts at the base of your skulls


Medulla


Conus Medullaus found at (between L1,L2 Vert)

What stabilize the spinal cord in place?

Dentriculate Ligaments (Pia Mater)


Filum Terminale (Pia Mater)



Whats the 5 Regions of the Spinal Cord?

Cervical (8)


Thoracic (12)


Lumbar (5)


Sacral (5)


Cocygeal (1)

Whats a Plexus?

Interwoven network of spinal nerves

Whats the 3 Plexus? What do they do?

Cervical Phrenic Nerve intervate diaphragm Help to maintain function if Spinal Cord get damaged


Brachial Median, ulnar, radial Maintain flexer muscles


Lumboscral

Autonomic is part of ?

Efferent portion of nervous system

whats the 2 different types of efferent

somatic efferent




Automatic efferent

what do Somatic efferent neuron intervate?

Voluntary skeletal muscle

The motor neuron in the Brain & Spinal Cord sends its axon out to release what neuron transimtter

ACH

Somatic efferent neuron soma spinal cord it sends out it one axon to release ACH .....

....

In the autonomatic your going to have 2 different neurons which is?

Preganglionic neuron

Preganglionic neuron sends its axon callled a preganglionic axon out of spinal cord brain that axon its going to the synaspe on the 2nd neuron pathway which is called a ganglionic neuron that ganglionic neuron then send which its called a post ganglionic axon out to the effector organ which would be cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, ,gland tissue .....

..........

Sympathetic is the _________ part of the autonomic nervous system

Fight or Flight

Parasympathetic is the _________ part of the autonomic nervous system

Rest & Digest

The preganglionic neuron for the sympathetic nervous system our going to be located in the spinal cord between T1 ,L2 spinal cord segments, being the gray matter where you find the preganglionic sympathetic neuron this neuron is going to send its axon which is the preganglionic axon out of the spinal cord thru the ventral root this preganglioninic axon is going to synapse are ganglionic neuron its located next to the spinal cord its going to to send its axon called the post ganglionic axon out to intervate the effector organ cell.....

.....

The Parasympathetic is also called (craniosacral) of the autonomic nervous system that's because of where the preganglionic axons are located in the brain stem, mid brain ,pons, medulla, or the gray matter of the spinal cord between S2-4. The preganglionic neuron of the Parasympathetic is going to send its preganglionic axon out of the brain how is it the axon are getting into the brain which cranial nerve have a parasympathetic to them cranial nerve 3,7,9,10 the preganglionic axon leave the brain stem thru 3,7,9,10 the axons are going to go out then innervate a ganglionic neuron the ganglionic neuron is near the effector organ the preganglionic axon is very long the ganglionic neuron then sends out a short postganglionic axon if you look down in the spinal cord the preganglionic neuron is going to send its axon out of the spinal cord thru the ventral root into some nerves which is called splanchnic nerves that preganglionic axon then go out to intervate a ganglionic neuron which is located right in the effector organ ........

........

Location of preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic is?

T1-L2

Location of preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic is?

brainstem and S2-4

Length of preganglionic axon of sympathetic is?

Short

Length of preganglionic axon of parasympathetic is?

Long

Neurotransmitter released by preganglionic axon of the sympathetic is?

ACH

Neurotransmitter released by preganglionic axon of the Parasympathetic is?

ACH

Location of postganglionic neuron of the sympathetic is?

Sympathetic chain ganglion

Location of postganglionic neuron of the parasympathetic is?

Next to or in the wall of effector organ

Type of receptor on postganglionic axon of the sympathetic is?

Nicotinic

Type of receptor on postganglionic axon of the Parasympathetic is?

Nicotinic

Length of postganglionic axon of the sympathetic is ?

Long

Length of postganglionic axon of the parasympathetic is ?

Short

Neurotransmitter released by postganglionic axon of the sympathetic is ?

NE

Neurotransmitter released by postganglionic axon of the parasympathetic is ?

ACH

Type of receptor on effector organ of the sympathetic is?

Alpha and Beta

Type of receptor on effector organ of the parasympathetic is?

muscarinic

The Cholenic Receptors would bind_____?

ACH

What are the 2 cholinergic receptors called?

Muscarinic Receptor




Nicotinic Receptor

What is Nicotinic Receptor

Chemically gated Nat channels

When a ACh binds to a Nicotinic Receptor what is going to happen ____________ Nat come into the effector organ cell it __________it produce a ________ response it found on all ___________?

Nat channel open


depolarize


excitatory


ganglionic neurons

With the Muscarinic receptors you have 2 different types they are going to be found on the___________________________________ they can produce a Excitatory or inhibitory effect Muscarinic receptors ______ produce _______ but Muscarinic receptors _____ produce ____________

effector organ cells of parasymapthic


1,3,5


Excitatory


2,4


Inhibitory

Adrenergic Receptors bind _____________?

NE

Adrenergic Receptors they are going to found on the _____________________________ when it come to Adrenergic Receptors it is 2 different types which is _________. The Alpha ones is 1 and 2. The beta ones is 1 and 2. Alpha 1 produce a _________response. Alpha 2 produce a _________ response. Beta 1 produce a _______ response. Beta 2 produce a ___________ response

effector organ cell of the sympathic


Alpha, Beta


excitatory


inhibitory


excitatory


inhibitory

Alpha 1 increase intracellular Ca2+ levels results in an _________ response?

excitatory

Alpha 2 results in an decrease cAMP levels results in an _________ response?

Inhibitory

Beta 2 alters enzyme activity results in an ___________ response?

excitatory

Beta 1 alters enzyme activity results in an ___________ response?

Inhibitory