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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Two types of tissue

neurons and neuroglia


small cellular processes that recieve input for nuerons to react to physical/chemical changes


longer process/nerve fiber carries info away from cell in form of bio electric signals.


bioelectric signals that allows neurons to communicate (action potentials)

axons in peripheral nervous system


axons in the central nervous system


more neurons or neuroglia in the brain?



small space between nueron and cell used to communicate

send and recieve chemical messages across______ by nuerotransmitters


CNS (Central Nervous system)

brain and spinal cord

PNS (Peripheral nervous system)

cranial and spinal nerves. connects CNS to other body parts

three general functions of nervous system

sensory, integrative, motor

sensory receptors

end of nuerons in peripheral nervous system. transduce their info into impulses, then along perpheral nerves to CNS.

what happen to signals in CNS

Integrated into thoughts, memories, then decisions are sub consciously made and motor occurs.


carry out motor processes of nervous system. outside nervous system and include muscles and glands that are controlled by nerve activity

somatic nervous system

communicates voluntary decisions which originate in the CNS and activate skeletal muscles causing contraction

autonomic nervous system

communicates decisions from the CNS that conntrol visceral organs like the heart/glands and smoooth muscle. (subconsious)

every nueron has

a cell body, axon, and dendrites


extend to axon and support the cell body

chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies)

in cytoplasm which consits of rough endoplasmic reticulum

synyaptic cleft

a space that seprates cells at the end of an axon


branches which come off axon

Schwann cells

nueroglia that ecase axons in a protective sheath. made of myelin which is lipids/proteins


surrounds mylein sheath of schwann cells

nodes of ranvier

narrow gaps in the myelin sheath

how many types of nuerons

three. they are different because of structural differences. All have impulses that go in one direction

multipolar neuron

-many processes arise from its one cell body.only one process is an axon, the rest dendrites.

- in the brain and spinal cord

bipolar nueron

only two processes, one arises from either end. one is axon and the other a dendrite.

unipolar neuron or pseudounipolar

single process extends from cell body. start out as two processes that merge into one.had two processes. peripheral and central.

functional differences of neurons

carry info to CNS, within the CNS, or out of the CNS

sensory neurons (afferent)

conduct impulses from peripheral body parts into the CNS. At their distal ends the dendrites have sensory receptors

interneurons (Association or internuncial)

in CNS. multipolar and form links with other neurons.

motor neurons (efferent neurons)

multipolar and conduct impulses out of CNS to effectors move body parts


star shaped cells found between neurons and blood vessels and provide support/stability. aid in metabolism of substances, regulate concentration of ions (ex. potassium), also respond to brain trauma by making certain type of scar tissue which fills spaces and closes gaps in CNS.


resemble astrocytes but smaller and with less processes. form in rows along axons. mylenate them axons brain and spinal cord. can mylenate many axons because of its various branches. Produce nerve growth factors.


small cells with fewer processes than other types of nueroglia.scattered throughout CNS and support nuerons/phagocytize. (IMMUNE SUPPORT)


cuboidal/colomnar w/ cilia. Form inner lining of central canal that extends down the spinal cord. Also form a porous membrane in brain that fills ventricles and allows for free exchange between cells.

interstital fluid

fluid in brain tissue

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid in brain ventricles

choroid processes

speacialized capilares in the brain which regulate composition of cerebspinal fluid

satellite cells

small cuboidal cells which surround cell bodies of nuerons in ganglia. support ganglia.

Neurons do not divide. So what happens?

new tissues arises from stem cells. neural progenitor cells are formed then neurons/neurglia.

In the adult brain, where are neural stem cells found?

dentate gyrus/ near fluid filled ventricles.

presynaptic neuron

the sender which conducts the impulse

postsynaptic neuron or cell

recieves input at the synapse. can also be a muscular or glandular cell.

synaptic transmission

process by which impulse in presynaptic nueron signals the postsyanptic cell

True or False. Is synpatic transmission a one way process?


synpatic knob

at terminals of axons (dendrites do not have these) have arrays of membrous sacs filled with nuero transmitter molecules.

What happens when an impulse reaches a snypatic knob?

voltage sensitive calcium is released from channels and calcium diffuses inward from extracellular fluid. synaptic vesicles within the cell fuse and then release the nuerotransmitters by exttocytosis.

Once the nuerotransmitter binds to the postsynaptic cell... the action is either ___ or ___

excitatory (turning process on) or inhibitory (turning process off)

True or false. A cell membrane is polarized.

True! A cell membrane is eletrically charged so that the inside is negativelly charged. It is also more permeable to potassium ions than sodium ions

potassium ions

major intracellular cation (positive ion)

sodium ions

major extracellular cation (positive)

sodium/potassium pump

pumps sodium out and potassium into cell

anions in cell

phosphate and sulfate

potential difference

-70 milivolts. the amount of negativeness in the cell compared to the outside of the cell.

membrane potential

the potential difference across a cell membrane measueed in milivolts (mv)

resting potential

neuron not sending impulses or responding to other neurons. -70 MV

action potential

rapid change in membrane potential. When a neuron conducts a current, there are a series of these occuring in sequence along the axon


when membrane becomes more negative than the resting potential


when membrane becomes less negative than resting potential

threshold potential

when neurons are sufficiently depolarized (-55 MV)

What happens when threshold potential is reached?

An action potential results