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45 Cards in this Set

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In terms of a history how should we take it for an animal with nervous disease?

In terms of a history how should we take it for an animal with nervous disease?

Onset- duration- any changes




Specific clinical signs- ear drop, circling, standing in corners, star gazing, ataxia, blindness.




What group/animals are affected.




Husbandry factors:


Nutrition.


Treatments.


Movements.

What is the first step of our nervous exam of a sheep or cow?

What is the first step of our nervous exam of a sheep or cow?

Assess from a distance


Demeanor- depressed, aggressive, obtunded.


Posture- stargazing


Awareness- is it walking into stuff.


Symmetry- ear drooping on one side.


Gait- is it aware where its putting its limbs, hypermetric etc.

Assess from a distance




Demeanor- depressed, aggressive, obtunded.




Posture- stargazing




Awareness- is it walking into stuff.




Symmetry- ear drooping on one side.




Gait- is it aware where its putting its limbs, hypermetric etc.

How do we assess the head in a neuro exam?

How do we assess the head in a neuro exam?

Symmetry. 
Head carriage. 
Mentation.
Cranial nerves- palpebral, menace.

Symmetry.


Head carriage.


Mentation.


Cranial nerves- palpebral, menace.

How do we assess the neck in our neuro exam?

How do we assess the neck in our neuro exam?

Range of motion.


Pain.


Palpate along spine.

How do we assess proprioceptive reflexes?

How do we assess proprioceptive reflexes?

If animal standing, place feed bag under and drag.


Is it aware where its limbs are, is it knuckling etc.

If animal standing, place feed bag under and drag.




Is it aware where its limbs are, is it knuckling etc.

How can we assess upper limb reflexes in cows? Name some?

How can we assess upper limb reflexes in cows? Name some?

Place animal in lateral recumbency. 


Patellar reflex- L4-L6


Extensor carpi radialis reflex-C7-T2 segment.


Withdrawal.


Cutaneous trunci.

Place animal in lateral recumbency.




Patellar reflex- L4-L6




Extensor carpi radialis reflex-C7-T2 segment.




Withdrawal.




Cutaneous trunci.

Where do we take a CSF tap in a cow or a sheep? How do we perform it?

Where do we take a CSF tap in a cow or a sheep? How do we perform it?

Lumbosacral region.L6-S2




Animal in sternal recumbency.




Hips flexed and hindlimbs extended forwards.




Aspirate gently- 1-2mls.




Check colour and clarity, place in an EDTA tube

How do cerebral lesions typically present?

How do cerebral lesions typically present?

Changes in mentation.




Depression.


Opisthotonus.


Circling.


Heading pressing.


Hyperaesthesia.


Visual deficits.




Unilateral lesions of the cerebral hemispheres manifests as clinical signs on the opposite side.

What is a common cause of acute onset neurological disease in weaned lambs and sporadically in adult sheep?

What is a common cause of acute onset neurological disease in weaned lambs and sporadically in adult sheep?

Cerbroscoritcal necrosis, Polioencephalomalacia.

History in a herd with CCN?

Within 2 weeks of moving onto new pasture.




Recent diet change.




Prior antihelminthic treatment.

Clinical signs of CCN?

Clinical signs of CCN?

Isolated from the group.


Wandering aimlessly and blind.


Hyperaesthetic.


Seizures.


Stargazing.


Recumbency.


Opisothonus.


Death after 3-5 days.

Isolated from the group.




Wandering aimlessly and blind.




Hyperaesthetic.




Seizures.




Stargazing.




Recumbency.




Opisothonus.




Death after 3-5 days.

What are reasons for CCN?

Damage to brain secondary to altered glucose metabolism.




Thiamine produced in rumen and need for glucose metabolism.




Excess thiaminese producing bacteria often precipitates an outbreak.

How can we diagnose CCN?

How can we diagnose CCN?

Bright white autofluoresence when cut sections of cerebrum run under UV light.



Histology showing vacuolation and cavitation of ground substance with astrocytic swelling, neuronal shrinkage and necrosis.

Other DDX for CCN?

FSE- Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia.



Pregancy toxaemia


Acute coenurosis.


Listeriosis.




Adult sheep.

How do we treat a sheep with CCN?

High doses of thiamine 10 mg/kg BID followed by i/m over 3 days 2x daily.



Dexamethasone 1 mg/kg.

What age of animal is affected by brain abscesses, how do they get them? SIgns?

What age of animal is affected by brain abscesses, how do they get them? SIgns?

3-6 month, haematogenous spread.




Progressive condition with signs including:




Blindness.


Proprioceptive deficits of the contralateral side.


PLR intact.


Depression.


Circling.

If we do a CSF of a brain abscess animal what will we find?

If we do a CSF of a brain abscess animal what will we find?

Slight increase in proteins and WBC's

Typical clinical signs with brainstem lesions?

Typical clinical signs with brainstem lesions?

Many cranial nerve nuclei lie here.




Dysphagia.


Nystagmus towards lesion.


Head tilt towards lesion.


Drooling.


Ptosis.


Loss of menace.

What is listeriosis associated with in terms of feeding and seasonality?

What is listeriosis associated with in terms of feeding and seasonality?

Spring-winter sileage fed sheep.




Particularly low acidic pH of spoiled sileage especially big bale.





Why is listeriosis usually seen in gimmers?

Due to eruption of the teeth.

Pathogenesis of listeriosis?

Minute wounds on buccal mucosa.




Ascends trigemminal to localize in the brainstem.

Signs of listeriosis?

Signs of listeriosis?

Fever, anorexia, depression.




Depression due to the ARAS system.


Drooling.


Food impaction.


Facial assymetry.


Circling due to damage of the vestibulocochlear nucleus.


Ipsilateral hemiparesis.


Head tilt.


Absence of a blink response unilateraly.

Other manifestations of listeriosis?

Septicaemia and abortion.


Sileage eye.

How to we diagnose listeriosis?

Congestion of menines.




Micro abscesses.




Sample of CSF showing elevated protein and mild pleocytosis of mononuclear cells.




Isolation of virus.





DDX list for listeriosis in cattle?

BSE.


CCN


Lead.


Rabies.



DDX lesions for sheep with listeriosis?

Brain abscesses.




Nephrosis.




Pregnancy toxaemia- B-hydroxy butyrate levels >3mmol, CSF tap

How do we treat an animal with listeriosis?

High doses of penicillin 100,000 iu/kg 2x daily for 5 days.




Dexamethasone too




Remove mouldy/poor quality sileage.




Supportive therapy- fluids and electrolytes orogastric tube.

How do we prevent listeriosis?

Removing stale, poor quality sileage.


Feeding gimmers hay.


Treat sileage to decrease pH.


Do not feed mouldy sileage.

Signs of vestibular disease?Treatment?

Signs of vestibular disease?Treatment?

Ipsilateral head tilt.


Nystagmus.


Circling.




Horners.




Usually unilateral.




Haematogenous spread following injury rams fighting.




Usually middle ear infection.




Treat with penicillin.



What does the cerebellum do? Signs of cerebellar disease?

What does the cerebellum do? Signs of cerebellar disease?

Cerebellum co-ordinates voluntary movements.




Signs:


Jerky/rigid movements.


Wide based stance.


Hypermetria.


Ataxia.


Intention tremor.

What age of sheep is sarcocystis usually seen? What are signs?

What age of sheep is sarcocystis usually seen? What are signs?

6-12 months.




Pelvic limb ataxia and paresis, dog stance.


DDX: Spinal cord lesions/delayed swayback.





Cerebellar dysplasia by borders disease/BVD

What is the median age for scrapie and what are signs of it?

What is the median age for scrapie and what are signs of it?

3-5 years.




Signs include: wool loss along the flank, nibble response and lip smacking when stimulate dorsal flank, poor BCS.




Mentation changes due to cerbral dysfunction.




Collapse when stressed.




Hyperasthetic.




Postural and gait abnormalities due to cerebellar dysfunction--> hypemetria, dysmetria, wide based stance.




Teeth grinding.

Signs of C1-C6 spinal lesions?

All limbs ataxic and weak.




Exaggerated reflexes in all limbs.

Signs of C6-T2 lesion?

Ataxia and weakness is more severe in the forelimbs.




Scuffing and abnormal wear of toes.



Signs of a T2-L3 lesion?

Normal thoracic limb function.


Weakness and ataxia of hind limbs.


Exaggerated pelvic reflexes.


Paniculus is absent caudal to lesion.

Signs of L4-S2 lesion?

Flaccid paralysis of hindlimbs.

Signs of sacral s1-s3 lesions?

Bladder distension.


Loss of anal tone.



In general with spinal lesions what occurs with CSF?

Protein content of CSF increases.

When are spinal abscesses usually seen?

Rams fighting in autumn.

Signs of Visna form of MV?

Slow onset of a head tilt.


Circling to affected side.


Hypermetria and hindlimb ataxia.


Pelvic limb paralysis.




Lateral ventricles and thoracolumbar region affected.

Normal CSF protein content?

<0.3 grams/l

How many cells does normal CSF contain?

0.012 x 10 9/litre mainly consisting of lymphocytes and some neutrophils.

When is a predoninantly polymorphonuclear intrathecal inflammatory response seen?

Acute CNS bacterial infections.




Mononuclear response if viral CNS infection.

Peripheral nerve issues we might see?

Peripheral nerve issues we might see?

Sciatic nerve damage due to injections.