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7 Cards in this Set

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CONCEPT OF ELECTRICITY LIKE BODY

- flow/potential flow of ion molecules


- ions = charged particles




(+) ion = missing an electron


(-) ion = additional electrol




for nerves, concentrate on these ions:


1. Na+ (sodium)


2. A- (protein)


3. K+ (potassium)


4. Cl- (chloride)

CONCENTRATION OF IONS IN & AROUND NEURONS

- less Na+ inside neuron


- more Na+ outside neuron




- more K+ inside neuron


- less K+ outside neuron




- less Cl- inside neuron


- more Cl- outside neuron




- more A- inside neuron


- less A- outside neuron

RULES WHEN NEURON @ REST (4)

1. A- must stay in place it begins


2. Na+ diffuses along concentration gradient


3. K+ diffuses along concentration gradient


4. Cl- goes in/out of neuron in = Q's

NEURON @ REST

- if left to passive processes...


- concenration gradient for K+ & NA+ returns to 0




- means cell w. no polarity


- not good




- we need to establish resting potential of -70mV...

ACTIVELY ESTABLISHING -70mV


-->


SODIUM/POTASSIUM PUMP!




3 Na+ ejected from cell


2 K+ transported into cell

- neurons have voltage-gated Na+ channels


- neurons have voltage-gated K+ channels


^use energy to move K+ & Na+ around




- sodium/potassium pump needs energy


- ATP provides energy


- pump isn't always on, only when needed




PUMP!


3 Na+ ejected from cell


2 K+ transported into cell







ESTABLISHED: RESTING POTENTIAL

- when you eject 3 Na+ & only inject 2 K+...


- internal environment = negative compared to external environment




- however each neuron has many pumps - contribute to overall (-) charged environment


- doesnt take long to establish -70mV




once established, now we can rest