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73 Cards in this Set

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8.6 to 10.0 mg/dL
1.6-2.6 mg/dL
3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL
135-145 mEq/L
98-107 mEq/L
Venous Bicarbonate
22-29 mEq/L
What is aPTT used to measure?
-Coagulation time---Activated parital thromboplastin time.
+Used to test this especially when client is on heparin.
What are normal aPTT values and what should they be if the client is on anticoagulation therapy?
Normal: 20 to 36 seconds
Heparin therapy: 1.5 to 2.5 times normal= 50-90 seconds
What is PT and INR used to measure?
PT--Prothrombin time
INR--International normalized ratio
<>Used to measure the amount of time it takes in seconds for clot formation and is used to monitor response to warfarin sodium (coumadin) therapy.
--INR standardizes the PT ratio
What are normal PT values?
9.6 to 11.8 seconds (male)
9.5-11.3 seconds (female)
What are normal INR values for a client on a standard dose warfarin therapy?
What are INR values for a client on a high-dose warfarin therapy?
What is the normal platelet count?
150,000 to 400,000 cells/mm
Normal Iron values
Male: 65-175 mcg/dL
Female: 50-170 mcg/dL
What are iron lab values usually used for?
Aids in diagnosing anemias and hemolytic disorders.
What is normal hemoglobin?
Male: 14-16.5 g/dL
Female: 12-15 g/dL
What is normal hematocrit?
Male: 42-52%
Female: 35-47%
What is normal RBC count?
Male: 4.5 to 6.2 million/uL
Female: 4.5 to 6.2 million cells/uL
What are creatine kinase levels used to determine?
Enzyme found in muscle and brain tissue that reflects tissue catabolism resulting from cell trauma.
What are normal creatine kinase (CK) values?
26-174 units/L
How much of total CK should be made up of CK-MB (cardiac)?
How much of total CK should be made up of CK-BB (Brain) and CK-MM (muscles)?
CK-BB: 0%
CK-MM- 95-100%
What is Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) used to measure?
-This isoenzyme is affected by acute myocardial infarction.
--The levels begin to rise about 24 hours after Mi and peaks in 40 to 72 hours. returns to normal at day 7-14.
What are Troponins used to measure?
-Troponin is a regulatory protein found in striated muscle (skeletal and myocardial)
-Increased amounts of troponins are released into the bloodstream when an infarction causes damage.
-Levels elevate as early as 3 hours after myocardial injury. And can stay elevated from 7 to 14 days after.
What are the normal lab values of Troponin I and Troponin T and the values if a client has experienced a myocardial infarction.
-Troponin I: value usually is lower than 0.6 ng/mL. Higher than 1.5= myocardial infarction.
-Troponin T: Higher than 0.1 to 0.2 ng/mL is consistent with myocardial infarction.
What does amount of myoglobin in the blood indicate?
-Myoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein found in striated muslces that releases oxygen at very low tensions. It is realeased into the blood with any injury to the muscle.
What are the lab values of myoglobin?
Normal: less than 90 mcg/L
<>Higher than this value can indicate myocardial infarction.
What are the normal lab values of albumin?
3.4 to 5 g/dL
What conditions have an effect on albumin levels?
Increased: dehydration, diarrhea, metastatic carcinoma
Decreased: acute infection, ascites, alcoholism.
What is the function of albumin in the blood?
Maintains oncotic pressure and transports bilirubin, fatty acids, medications, hormones, and other substances that are insoluble in water.
What is the function of alkaline phosphatase in the body?
-Enzyme normally found in bone, liver, intestine, and placenta.
-Levels increase during periods of bone growth , liver disease, and bile duct obstruction.
What are normal values of alkaline phosphatase?
4.5 to 13 King-Armstrong unites/dL
What is the normal values of ammonia in the blood?
35 to 65 mg/dL
What is the function of ammonia in the body?
-Byproduct of protein catabolism, most of it is creased by bacteria acting on proteins present in the gut.
-It is metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys as UREA.
What is a consequence of elevated ammonia levels?
-Elevated levels resulting from hepatic dysfunction may lead to encephalopathy.
What is the function of Amylase in the body?
-Enzyme, produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, aids in the digestion of complex carbs and is excreted by the kidneys.
<>Levels greately increased in acute pancreatitis.
What are the normal values of Amylase?
25-151 units/L
What is the function of lipase in the body?
-Pancreatic enzyme that converts fats and triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
-Elevated lipase levels occur in pancreatic disorders.
What are the normal values of of lipase?
10 to 140 units/L
What is the function of bilirubin in the body?
-Produced by the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, and is also a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown.
-Total bilirubin levels increase with any type of jaundice, direct and indirect bilirubin levels help differentiate the cause of the jaundice.
What are normal levels of bilirubin?
-Direct (conjugated): 0-0.3 mg/dL
-Indirect (unconjugated): 0.1 to 1.0 mg/dL
-Bilirubin, total: lower than 1.5 mg/dL
What is the normal value of total cholesterol in the blood?
140-199 mg/dL
What is the normal value of LDL?
Lower than 130 mg/dL
What is the normal values for HDL?
30-70 mg/dL
What are the normal values for Triglycerides?
Lower than 200 mg/dL.
What is the normal value of protein in the blood?
(Includes total amount of albumin and globulins in the plasma)
6.0 to 8.0 g.dL
What are the normal values of uric acid?
Male: 4.5 to 8 mg/dL
Female: 2.5 to 6.2 mg/dL
What is the function of uric acid in the body?
Formed as the purines adenine and guanine and are metabolized continuously during the formation and degration of DNA and RNA. It is also formed from the metabolism of dietary purines.
What is a consequence of high levels of uric acid in the body?
-uric acid will deposit in joints and soft tissue and cause gout.
-Elevated levels of urinary uric acid precipitate into urate stones in the kidneys.
What is the normal fasting glucose level?
70-110 mg/dL
What are normal 2-hr, postprandial glucose levels?
<140 mg/dL
What is glycosylated hemoglobin?
-Blood glucose bound to hemoglobin.
-Hemoglobin A1c is a reflection of how well blood glucose levels have been controlled for the past 3 to 4 months.
What are Hemoglobin A1c values for a diabetic with good, fair and poor control over their blood glucose levels?
Good control: 7% or lower
Fair control: 7 to 8%
Poor control: Higher than 8%
What is the use of a serum creatinine level?
-Creatinine is a specific indicator of renal function.
-Increased levels indicate a slowing of the glomerular filtration rate.
What are normal values of serum creatinine?
0.6 to 1.3 mg/dL
What is the use of Blood urea nitrogen levels?
-Urea nitrogen is the nitrogen portion of urea, a substance formed in the liver through an enzymatic protein breakdown process.
-It is normally freely filtered through the renal glomeruli, with a small amount reabsorbed in the tubules and the remainder excreted in teh urine.
-Elevated levels indicate a slowing of glomerular filtration rate.
What are normal values of Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)?
8 to 25 mg/dL
What are normal calcium levels?
8.6 to 10.0 mg/dL
What are normal magnesium levels?
1.6 to 2.6 mg/dL
What are normal phosphorus levels?
2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL
What are normal values of Thyroid-stimulating hormone?
0.2 to 5.4 microunits/mL
What are normal levels of Thyroxine (T4)?
5.0 to 12.0 mcg/dL
Part of the thyroid studies.
What are normal levels of thyroixine, free (FT4)?
0.8 to 2.4 ng/dL
What are normal levels of Triiodothyroinine (T3)?
Part of thyroid studies
80-230 ng/dL
What is the normal value of WBC?
4,500 to 11,000 cells/mm3
What is a "shift to the left"?
An increased number of immature neturophils present in the blood.
What tests are included in Hepatitis testing?
radioimmunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle enzyme immunoassay.
-Serological tests for specific hepatitis virus markers assist in defining the specific type of hepatitis.
CD4+ T cell counts can provide what information?
-This cell count monitors the progression of HIV
-As the disease progresses, usually the number of CD4+ T-cells decreases, with a resultant decrease in immunity.
What are normal CD4+ T-cell counts?
500-1600 cells/L
-Usually the immune system remains healthy with cell counts higher than 500 cells/L
-Immune system problems occur between 200-499 cells/L
-Severe immune problems occur with counts lower than 200 cells/L
What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
1.016 to 1.022
What is the therapeutic range of serum Digoxin levels?
0.5-2 ng/mL
What is the therapeutic range of serum Lithium levels?
0.5-1.3 mEq/L