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496 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ego Identity
-often associated with Ericson Stage 5
-when an alolescent is able to integrate all his or her previous roles into a single self-concept
-Behaviorist Lazarus
-multimodal approach
-Affective Responses
-Interpersonal Relationships
6 stages
3 levels
Moral Development:
Preconventional Level (Premoral Level)
Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience Orientation
Stage 2: Naive Hedonism (Instrumental or Egotistic)
Conventional Level (morality of coventional rules and authority):
Stage 3: Good Boy/Good Girl
Stage 4: Authority, Law, and Order Orientation
Post-conventional Level:
Stage 5: Democratically accepted law
Stage 6: Principles of Self-Conscience and Universal ethics or social control
Piaget's Final Stage: What is it called and two things that happen
Formal Operation Stage:
1. Abstract thinking occurs
2. Problems can be solved by deduction
Definition of Heredity (3)
1. Assumes normal person has 23 pairs of chromosomes
2. Assumes that heredity characteristics are transmitted by chromosomes
3. Genes composed of DNA hold a genetic code
Definition of Heritability
The portion of a trait that can be explained via genetic factors
Oedipus Complex (3)
1. Freud
2. Fantasies of sexual relations with the opposite sex parent occurs
3. Occurs during phalic stage
Electra Complex
Oedipus Complex for girls
Define Covert
Any psychological process which cannot b directly observed
Define "In Vivo"
Client is exposed to an actual situation which might prove frightful or difficult
Behavioral Therapy techniques that help to ameliorate anxiety reactions
What is a visual cliff utilized for and by who?
-The matter of depth perception of children
Definition of Empiricists
Theorists who believe that development merely consists of quantitative changes (associationism)
Empiricist view of development
What is said to often be the forerunner of behaviorism?
Organicism (3)
1. Development strides are qualitative
2. Kurt Goldstein
3. Gestalt Psychologists
Child needs _______ ________ to master object permanence (object constancy)
Representational Thought
Object Permanence
Out of sight, Out of mind
Bonding and attachment
Definition of Autistic
Extremely withdrawan and isolated
Definition of Fixation in psychoanalytic theory
Individual is unable to go from one developmental stage to the next
Behavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given species
-Study of Animals behavior in their natural environment
Branch of Philosophy that attempts to examine how we know what we know
Symbolic schema
1. Piaget's pre-operational stage
2. Ages 2-7
3. Language and Symbolism in language to occur
R.J. Havinghurst
Developmental Tasks of:
1. Infancy and early childhood
2. Middle childhood
3. Adolescence
4. Early Adulthood ages
5. Later Maturity
Jane Loevinger
Ego development via 7 stages and 2 transitions
The primal scene
A psychoanalytic concept that suggests that a young child witnesses his parents having sexual intercourse or is seduced by a parent
"object" in psychoanalysis
-The target of one's love
-Sequence of object loss=protest to despair to detachment
Positive and Negative Reinforcers
-Increase the probability that a behavior will occur
Dale Levinson and his Yale Research
-80% of men in the study experienced moderate to severe midlife crises
-an "age 30 crisis" occurs in men when they feel it will soon be too late to make later changes
Erikson's middle age stage (35-60) is known as generativity versus stagnation. Generativity refers to (3):
1. The ability to do creative work or raise a family
2. the opposite of stagnation
3. the productive ability to create a career, family, and leisure time.
Who was most concerned with maternal deprivation?
-Harry Harlow
-best known for his work with rhesus monkeys
Who pioneered the technique of systematic desensitization?
Joseph Volpe
Who is a New York clinical psychologist who developed a form of treatment known as Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), which teaches clients to think in a more scientific and logical matter?
Robert Ellis
Which theorist would be most likely to say that aggression is an inborn tendency?
Konrad Lorenz-compared humans to the wolf or babboon and claimed that we are naturally aggressive.
Who is known as the father of guidance?
Frank Parsons
What is imprinting?
-an instinct in which a newborn will follow a moving object
Who did the primary work in the area of imprinting?
-Konrad Lorenz
According to a structuralist viewpoint, each __________is a way of making sense out of the world.
What viewpoint does Piaget have?
-He is a structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative.
What kind of factors cause Down syndrome and what does this syndrome produce?
-a chromosomal abnormality (an additional chromosome or two that causes brain damage which results in an IQ of 50 or less). An IQ of 100 is normal.
What does someone with Down syndrome look like?
-rather flat face, a thick tongue, and slanted eyes.
What has Down syndrome also been called?
What are 3 other hereditary or genetic conditions?
1. Phenylketonuria(PKU)-amino acid metabolic difficulty that causes retardation unless the baby is placed on a special diet.
2. Klinefelter's Syndrome-a male shows no masculinity at puberty
3. Turner's Syndrome-a female has no gonads or sex hormones
Psychoanalysts and pschodynamic therapists follow what theory of development?
Maturational Theory: allow clients to work through early conflicts in a safe, therapeutic relationship
What is the definition of ritualistic behaviors?
-fixed-action patterns elicited by sign stimuli
-an FAP will result whenever a releaser in the environment is present
-the action or sequence of the behavior will not vary
Robert Kegan speaks of a "holding environment" in counseling in which
the client can make meaning in the face of crisis and can find new direction.
Multicultural counselors often work with persons who are culturally different. This means the client
belongs to a different culture from the helper.
What does cultural relativity mean?
a behavior cannot be assessed as good or bad except within the context of a given culture
Who are 3 therapists who were instrumental in the early years of the social psychology movement?
1. Freud
2. Durkheim: considered one of the founders of modern psychology
3. McDougall: is the father or hormic psychology
____and ____ would say that regardless of culture, humans have an instinct to fight.
Freud and Lorenz
The frustration-aggression theory is associated with ____and ____
Dollard and Miller
Frustration occurs when
an individual is blocked so that he/she cannot reach an intended goal.
What theorist came up with a popular balance theory in social psychology and what is the name of the theory?
Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory
What are mores?
Beliefs regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior.
What is the difference between folkways and mores?
-breaking folkways generally results in embarrassment, while breaking mores causes harm to others or threatens the existence of the group.
-both describe correct, normal, or habitual behavior
Who was the first pioneer to focus heavily on sociocultural issues?
-Frank Parsons-The Father of Guidance, who wrote "Choosing a Vocation"
A counselor who is part of a research study in the Polar Regions and then at a point near the equator would primarily be concerned with what type of culture?
national culture and ecological culture
Biological similarities and sameness are indicated by what type of culture?
universal culture
Early vocalization in infants
is nearly identical in all cultures around the globe
In the 1920's, Emory Bogardus developed a social distance scale which evaluated
how an individual felt toward other ethnic groups
According to the foot-in-the-door technique, which has two distinct steps, a counselor who needs to make a home visit to a resistant client's home
should ask to come in the home. The moral is to always ask for a small favor and you'll have a better chance of getting a person to say "yes" when you ask for a bigger favor.
The 3 F's
Freedman, Fraser, and Foot
Whereas a culture is defined primarily via norms and values, a society differs from a culture in that a society
a self-perpetuating independent group which occupies a definitive territory.
-a universal phenomenon in which the ethnic group tries to prove it is superior
-promotes a sense of patriotism and national sovereignty.
-promotes stability and pride, yet danger in the nuclear age.
-ethnic and racial minorities itegrate or adopt cultural beliefs or customs of the majority or dominant culture
Said to occur when an individual has such a high level of acculturation that he or she becomes part of the dominant, macro, or majority culture.
Regardless of the culture, the popular individual has
good social skills.
Modal personality
refers to the most typical profile of a given group of people. The personality which is characteristic or typical of the group in question.
In Fenstinger's cognitive dissonance theory,
people will tend to justify behavior in order to create "consonance".
Fancy word for harmony
The number of people who will help a victim in distress decreases, and the time it will take to intervene increases, as the number of bystanders ___
Helping an individual in distress.
In the case of an individual who purchased a $20,000 watch, cognitive dissonance theory postulates that
1. he or she might ignore positive info regarding other models and secure a lot of information regarding the platinum they bought
2. he or she might focus heavily on negative information regarding rival models
Cognitive dissonance research deals mainly with
cognition and attitude formation
In intercultural/multicultural counseling the term "therapeutic surrender" means
the client psychologically surrenders himself or herself to a counselor from a different culture and becomes open with feelings and thoughts.
In terms of trust and therapeutic surrender (3 things)
1. it is easier to trust people form one's own culture
2. lower-class people often don't trust others from a higher social class
3. lower-class clients may feel that they will end up as losers dealing with a counselor from a higher social class
autoplastic view
asserts that change comes from within
alloplastic conceptualization
client can cope best by changing or altering external factors in the environment
an individual exists in more than one category
a group of people totally withdrawl from the political majority
In 1908, books by ___and ___helped to introduce social psychology in America.
McDougall and Ross
What noted psychologist is associated with obedience and authority?
Stanley Milgram-electric shock investigations
The tendency to affiliate with others is highest in _____and ______.
firstborns and only children.
Three basic categories of conflict which result in frustration
1. approach-avoidance
2. approach-approach: individual is presented with two equally attractive options simultaneously.
3. avoidance-avoidance
Characteristics of ineffective multicultural helpers
1. generally believes in the melting pot concept
2. has a strong ethnocentric view
3. will not ask the client information related to religion or level of faith development.
Melting pot concept
A myth meaning that the different cultures assimilate or melt into the dominant culture
Ethnocentric View
A given culture is the best or superior to others. Can also mean that the counselor falsely believes that the client views the world in the same manner as the helper.
Salad Bowl Analogy
people are mixed together, but like lettuce and tomatoes in a salad, they retain their unique cultural identity. (this analogy is preferred over the melting pot analogy).
"Robbers' Cave experiment (3)
1. Conducted by social psychologist Sherif et al.
2. Took place at the boys' summer camp near Robbers Cave, Oklahoma
3. Found that a cooperative goal can bring two hostile groups together thus reducing competition and enhancing cooperation.
Research related to affiliation
1. misery loves company
2. firstborns are more likely to affiliate than other children born later.
3. people affiliate in an attempt to lower fear.
The definition of introspection
when a person "looks within themselves"
The client who would most likely engage in introspection would be
a client of a higher social class
Facts about clients who are of Asian descent (4)
1. It is a sign of respect to avoid eye contact with an authority figure.
2. It is proper to talk no more than necessary.
3. It is shameful to brag or to express one's own desires, ambitions, or strong feelings.
4. Place a very high premium on self-control.
Best therapy for Asian Americans
-brief therapy that is directive and structured with specific problem-solving goals
What kind of healing do Hispanic Americans often value?
folk healing, which is very spiritual, such as going into a trancelike state and talking to God.
Who is the father of psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud
-both a form of treatment and a very comprehensive personality theory
Who was the father of individual psychology?
Alfred Adler
Who founded analytic psychology?
Carl Jung
What is catharsis? (2)
the talking cure
Who's name is usually associated with the impact that Freudian theory has on career choice?
Who is Rollo May?
a prime mover in the existential counseling movement
Who invented Transactional Analysis and what are the three ego states of it?
-Eric Berne
-the Child, the Adult, and the Parent
What does the word "topography" mean?
-Freudians often map the mind
In transactional analysis, the ___ is the conscience, or ego state concerned with moral behavior, while in Freudian theory, it is the _______.
parent; superego
What does the game of "Wooden Leg" consist of in TA?
A person who could expect others to parent him throughout his life or might use a lack of parenting as an excuse for poor behavior. For example, "Of course, I can't keep a job; I never had a mother teach me how".
Freud felt that successful resolution of the Oedipus complex led to the development of the superego. This is accomplished by
identification with the aggressor, the parent of the same sex.
What does the Greek word "Oedipus" mean?
"swollen feet".
What does transference mean?
implies that the client displaces emotion felt toward a parent onto the the analyst, counselor, or therapist.
A client who threatens a self-destructive act is being ruled primarily by ______(in Freudian theory)
Thanatos (Greek word for death). Freud used this word to describe a death wish or what is sometimes called the death instinct.
What does Eros mean to Freudians?
The id is the _____.
The ego is the _______
The superego is the ____
pleasure principle
reality principle
ego ideal
If you think of the mind as a seesaw, then the fulcrum or balancing apparatus would be the
What is free association?
instructing the client to say whatever comes to mind.
What was Freud's most influential work?
1900- "The Interpretation of Dreams"
Freud believed that dreams have
manifest (surface meaning) and latent (hidden meaning) content
What are 3 landmark psychoanalytic cases?
1. Little Hans
2. Anna O.-first psychoanalytic patient
3. Schreber
What was a famous case associated with the work of John Watson, who pioneered American behaviorism?
Little Albert (conditioned 11 month old Albert to be afraid of furry objects).
What curative process is known as talking about difficulties in order to purge emotions and feelings?
catharsis and/or abreaction
What is accurate empathy?
the counselor can truly understand what the client is feeling or experiencing
What is reflection of emotional content?
the counselor restates the client's verbalization in such a manner that the client becomes more aware of his or her emotions
Id, ego, superego is to structural theory as _______is to topographical theory.
unconscious, preconscious, conscious
What does introspection mean?
any process in which a client attempts to describe his or her own internal thoughts, feelings, and ideas
What theory is associated with the mind being seen as an iceberg?
topographical theory
What are the 9 ego defense mechanisms?
Rationalization, compensation, repression, projection, reaction formation, identification, introjection, denial,and displacement.
The most important defense mechanism according to Freudians is
Unconscious processes, which serve to minimize anxiety and protect the self from severe id or supergo demands are called
ego defense mechanisms
When does reaction formation occur?
when a person can't accept a given impulse and thus behaves in the opposite manner
Suppression differs from repression in that
repression is automatic or involuntary.
Freud called "slips of the tongue" _______while it will technically be referred to as______on some exams.
-psychopathology of everyday life
An aggressive male who becomes a professional boxer because he is sadistic is displaying
What is rationalization?
an intellectual excuse to minimize hurt feelings
What is displacement?
something that occurs when an impulse is unleashed at a safe target.
Sublimation is a defense mechanism while ____occurs when you perceive something unconsciously and thus it has an impact on your behavior
subliminal perception
When does introjection take place?
when a child accepts a caretaker's, parent's, or significant other's values as his or her own.
When does identification result?
When a person identifies with a cause or a successful person with the unconscious hope that he or she will be perceived as successful or worthwhile. OR the identification with the other person serves to lower the fear or anxiety toward that person.
What are two types of rationalization and the definition of each?
When a person underrates a reward (sour grapes rationalization), when a person overrates a reward (sweet lemon rationalization).
What is projection?
When a person attributes unacceptable qualities of his or her own to others.
What is compensation?
When an individual attempts to develop or overdevelop a positive trait to make up for a limitation.
What has been a major criticism of Freud's theory?
many aspects of his theory are difficult to test from a scientific standpoint
What is considered the oldest major form of therapy?
Freud's Psychoanalysis theory
What is the definition of interpretation?
something the counselor does to make the clients aware of their unconscious processes.
Organ inferiority relates mainly to the work of
Alfred Adler's individual psychology.
What is the term insight equated with?
Gestalt Psychologist Kohler
According to some theorists, three types of learning exist. They are:
-reinforcement (operant conditioning)
-association (classical conditioning)
Logos implies _____, while eros refers to ________.
logic; intuition
What is transference neurosis?
the client is attached to the counselor as if he or she is a substitute parent.
What are the drawings balanced around a center point that Jung used to analyze himself, his clients, and dreams called?
mandalas-Hindu symbol for meditation.
What is eidetic imagery?
the ability to remember the most minute details of a scene or picture for an extended period of time. This is usually gone by the time a child reaches adolescence.
What theorists emphasized the drive for superiority?
Adler...also known as a thirst for perfection.
The statement "Sibling interaction may have more impact than parent/child interaction" describes whose theory?
Who were some Neo-Freudians and what did they stress the importance of?
Adler, Horney, Erikson, Sullivan, and Fromm stressed the importance of cultural (social) issues and interpersonal (social) relations.
What does the word baseline mean?
indicates the frequency that a behavior is manifested prior to or in the absence of treatment.
One of Adler's students, _____, was the first to discuss the use of group therapy in private practice.
Rudolph Dreikurs
Who are 4 therapists who are associated with paradoxical techniques?
Adler, Frankl, Haley, and Milton Erickson
Jung spoke of a collected unconscious common to all men and women. This is a primal universal symbol (like the cross). What is this called?
What are five common archetypes?
the persona, animus, anima, self, and the shadow
What kind of concept is symptom substitution?
An analytic concept
The word eclectic is most closely associated with what theorist?
Thorne-"true eclecticism is much more than a hodepodge of facts".
Lifestyle, birth order, and family constellation are emphasized by
Existentialism is to logotherapy as _____is to behaviorism.
Who are the pioneers of associationism (4)?
JOHN LOCKE, Hume, Mill, or Hartley
B.F. Skinner's Reinforcement Theory elaborated on ___
Edward Thorndike's law of effect.
Classical Conditioning relates to the work of
Ivan Pavlov.
Skinner's operant conditioning is also referred to as __________
instrumental learning
Respondent behavior refers to
All reinforcers
tend to increase the probability that a behavior will occur-both negative and positive.
Negative reinforcement requires the withdrawal of a negative stimulus to increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur. Negative reinforcement is not as used as often as positive reinforcement is and
is not the same thing as punishment.
decreases the probability that a negative behavior will reoccur.
In Pavlov's experiment using dogs, the bell was the ____, and the meat was the ____.
CS (conditioned stimulus)
UCS (unconditioned stimulus)
The most effective time interval (temporal relation) between the CS and the US is
.5 or 1/2 of a second
Stimulus generalization
-also called "second order conditioning", occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS gives the same reaction
What is stimulus discrimination?
also called stimulus differentiation.
-when the learning process is fine tuned to respond only to a specific stimulus.
In an experiment, a dog was conditioned to salivate to a bell paired with a fast food cheeseburger. The researcher then kept ringing the bell without giving the dog the cheeseburger. This is known as
extinction, and the salivation will disappear.
Extinction occurs when
the CS is "not" reinforced via the US.
Most experts believe that the CR is not eliminated but is suppressed, or what is generally called ______
If an animal taking part in the above experiment is given a rest, the CR will reappear, though it will be weaker. What is this phenomenon called?
Spontaneous Recovery
John B. Watson's name is associated with ______
Little Albert. The case demonstrated that fears were learned and not the result of some unconscious conflict.
What is a chain?
A sequence of behaviors in which one response renders a cue that the next response is to occur. It is really just a series of operants joined together by reinforcers.
In general, behavior modification strategies are based heavily on ____, while behavior therapy emphasizes ______.
instrumental conditioning, classical conditioning. Or...Skinnerian principles and Pavlovian principles
The first studies, which demonstrated that animals could indeed be conditioned to control autonimic processes, were conducted by ____
Neal Miller.
Today, counselors often use the technique of _______to help clients control autonimic responses.
Edward Thorndike is associated with _____
"law of effect" or "trial and error learning"
The significance of the Little Albert experiment by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner was that______
a phobia could be a learned behavior.
In the famous Little Albert experiment, a child was conditioned to fear a harmless white furry animal. The child also began to fear a Santa Claus mask. This would demonstrate ______
stimulus generalization.
A counselor who says he or she practices depth psychology technically bases his or her treatment on
Freud's topographic hypothesis.
Pavlov, Jones, and Watson were pioneers in the _____movement.
When a counselor refers to a counseling paradigm, she really means ____
a treatment model.
The term directive paradigm is also known as (2)
active therapy or active-directive therapy.
A bathroom scale is what kind of device?
In counseling _______are used primarily to teach clients to relax or control autonimic nervous system functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, or hand temperature.
biofeedback devices
Behavior therapy has been criticized that it is _____(3)
reductionistic, simplistic, and does not deal with underlying causes.
Existential therapy has been criticized for ____
being too vague regarding techniques and procedures.
Existential counselors as well as Rogerian Person-Centered counselors adhere to what Buber called the I-Thou relationship, which asserts that____
the relationship is horizontal. This assumes equality between persons.
Frankl is an existentialist. So are ______and ____
Yalom and May.
Rollo May introduced
existential therapy in the U.S.
Irvin Yalom is noted for his work in
group therapy.
Who is the father of Gestalt therapy?
Fritz Perls.
Who pioneered REBT?
Albert Ellis
Who is noted for his primal scream therapy?
Arthur Janov
Whose cognitive therapy resembles REBT?
Aaron T. Beck
Existentialists speak of three worlds, the Umwelt or the ____world.
physical and biological
The Mitwelt or the _____world.
Eigenwelt or the _____world.
Victor Frankl is to logotherapy as William Glasser is to
reality therapy.
Reality therapy has incorporated _______theory.
control or choice
What does BCP stand for?
perception controls our behavior
What is rolfing?
A type of deep muscle massage which is assumed to have an impact on the person's emotional state.
The relationship that the therapist has with the client in reality therapy is ___
like that of a friend who asks what is wrong.
Glasser's theory was popularized in educational circles after he wrote ____
Schools without failure.
The cognitive therapist most closely associated with the concept of stress inocultion is
Donald Meichenbaum.This approach is called "Self-Instructional Therapy"
What are the three basic phases of Meichenbaum's stress-inoculation technique?
1. Educational
2. Rehearsal
3. Application
Who created transactional analysis and what are two books that he wrote?
Eric Berne
-Games People Play
-What do you say after you say hello?
TA therapists are most likely to incorporate _____in the treatment process.
gestalt therapy.
What are the 3 ego states that Berne suggested?
the Parent, the Adult, and the Child (P-A-C)
TA therapists speak of two functios in the Parent ego state, the _____parent and the ______parent.
Nurturing, Critical
Which parent is the master of the shoulds, oughts, and musts?
The death or absence of a parent can result in what TA counselors call an ____
Incomplete Parent state
The Child Ego State is like the little kid within. The child may manifest itself as (3) things.
1. The Natural Child
2. The Adapted Child
3. The Little Professor.
What are messages we receive from parents to form the ego states called?
Describing the client using the P-A-C conceptualization is known as __________.
Structural Analysis.
TA is a cognitive model of therapy which asserts that healthy communication transactions occur where vectors of communication run _____
Karpman suggested that only three roles are necessary for manipulative drama:
persecutor, rescuer, and victim.
The act of looking at the consequences of games is known as ______
game analysis.
Empathy and counselor effectiveness scales reflect the work of
Carkhuff and Gazda
The acronym NLP is an abbreviation for
Bandler and Grinder's neurolinguistic programming.
A gestalt therapist is most likely going to deal with a client's projection via
playing the projection technique
According to gestalt therapists, a client who is angry at his wife for leaving him, and who makes a suicide attempt would be engaging in
retroflection-the act of doing to yourself what you really wish to do to someone else.
Gestalt means
a form, figure, or configuration unified as a whole.
A TA counselor and a strict behaviorist are both in the same case conference to staff a client. Which technique would the two most likely agree on when formulating a plan of action?
Unpleasant feelings after a person creates a game are called
Perls suggested _____which must be peeled away to reach emotional stability.
5 layers of neurosis
What are the 5 layers of neurosis called?
1. Phony Layer
2. Phobic Layer
3. Impasse Layer
4. Implosive Layer
5. Explosive Layer
What therapy emphasizes the awareness in the here-and-now and dream work?
Most experts would agree that the peak period of competition between the various schools of counseling and therapy was during______
The late 1960's.
The school of counseling created by Carl Rogers has undergone three name changes. Initially it was called _____then___and in 1974 it changed to _____
nondirective counseling; client-centered therapy; the person-centered approach
Roger's method could also be known as ______theory.
Rogers-approach and perspective on mankind.
Person-Centered- Individual is good and moves toward growth and self-actualization.
Transactional Analysis-Messages learned about self in childhood determine whether person is good or bad, though the intervention can change this script
Psychoanalysis- Deterministic; perople are controlled by biological instincts; are unsocialized, irrational, driven by unconscious forces such as sex and aggression
REBT: People have a cultural/biological propensity to think in a disturbed manner but can be taught to use their capacity to react differently.
Gestalt: People are not bad or good. People have the capacity to govern life effectively as a whole. People are part of their environment and must be viewed as such.
Reality Therapy: Individuals strive to meet basic physiological needs and the need to be worthwhile to self and others. Brain as control system tries to meet needs.
Individual Psychology: Man is basically good; much of behavior is determined via birth order.
Analytic Psychology: Man strives for individuation or a sense of self-fulfillment.
Behavior Modification: Humans are like other animals-mechanistic and controlled via environmental stimuli and reinforcement contingencies; not good or bad; no self-determination or freedom.
Neobehavioristic: Person produces and is a product of conditioning
Logotherapy: Existential view is that humans are good, rational, and retain freedom of choice.
Trait-factor: Through education and scientific data, man can become himself. Humans are born with potential for good or evil. Others are needed to help unleash positive potential. Man is mainly rational, not intuitive.
The counselor's social power (social influence) is related to
expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness.
Allan E. Ivey has postualted three types of empathy:
basic, subtractive, and additive.
____and _____created a program to help counselors learn accurate empathy.
Truax; Carkhuff
The human relations core for effective counseling includes
empathy, positive regard (or respect), and genuineness.
Prior to the 1960's most counseling took place
in a dyadic relationship
What is a dyad?
a unit of two functioning as a pair.
What does the word didactic mean?
to teach
The term group therapy was coined in 1931 by
Jacob Moreno, the father of psychodrama
What two organizations for group therapy were created i the 1940's.
the American Society for Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama and the American Group Psychotherapy Association.
Which theorist's work has been classified as a preface to the group movement?
Primary groups are
preventative and attempt to ward off problems.
Group therapy initially flourished in the United States due to
a shortage of individual therapists during World War II.
Some theorists feel that group therapy differs from group counseling (which is also called an interpersonal problem solving group) in that
group therapy, also dubbed as a personality reconstruction group, would be of longer duration.
Who proposes a typology of three distinctive groups and what are they?
George Gazda; guidance, counseling, psychotherapy
Most experts would agree that overall
structured exercises are less effective than unstructured techniques.
What is taxonomy and what is another name for it?
the science of classification...also known as nosology, which means the classification of disease.
The number of people in an open group is generally
more stable than in a closed group.
What does the term ambivalent transference mean?
a psychoanalytic notion often thrown out in multicultural circles, which suggests that a client will treat a therapist with ambivalence, as he or she would treat any person viewed as an authority
What is practicing excitation and who is associated with it?
Andrew Salter's conditioned reflex therapy. This word means the practice of spontaneously expressing true emotions (even negative ones) is seen as necessary to attain a state of positive mental health.
What is Inhibition?
-constipation of emotions
-is seen as the opposite of excitation.
What does the harmonizer do?
Makes certain that everything is going smoothly.
What is cohesiveness and what can it also be called?
group unity
-promotes bonding and a sense of we-ness between group members
When cohesiveness is strong in a group, this can be negative because
-it can stunt creativity
-it can abet authority
What is a faction?
A clique or a group of people within a group.
Also can be called a subgroup.
What is sociometry?
The study of measuring person-to-person relationships regarding what members in a group think or feel.
Who is the sociogram accredited to and what can it provide in treatment?
-Moreno and Jenkins
-graphically displays group members' affiliations and interactions.
What is family sculpturing?
-family therapy technique in which the family members are instructed to arrange themselves spatially to create a live representation of family members' bonds, feelings of closeness, and sense of alliances.
Strategies that approach the group as a whole are
horizontal interventions.
-often called the interpersonal method
-tasks which focus on group relationships, processes, tasks, and interactions
-here and now interventions
Strategies that work with individuals in a group are
vertical interventions.
-work on the past
Should a group therapist make more or fewer decisons than an individual therapist
When a counselor reads the journals in this field, it becomes evident that
a researcher/practitioner split exists in group work.
A major limitation related to group work is that
a group leader can lose control and members could experience emotional harm
Other limitations of group work: (6)
1. A client may need individual therapy before he or she can benefit from group work.
2. a client may not be capable of trusting others enough to reveal key material since he or she fears others may find it unacceptable.
3. the group could become a substitute experience for the real world
4. group counselor may not be as effective with the whole group as he/she is with individuals.
5. some clients may feel pressure to replace their personal norms with those of the group
6. Disappointment can set in if the group is not helpful and the person loses faith in treatment without experiencing individual sessions.
What are the factors that are delineated by Yalom (an existential therapist) as a curative factor?
altruism, universality, existential learning, catharsis, cohesiveness, instillation of hope, imitative behavior, reenactment of family experiences
Conyne suggested that group itnervention is intended to
prevent, correct, or enhance behavior
What is Conyne's model called and what are the intervention levels of that model? (4)
"group work grid"
-individual, interpersonal, organization, community population
What percentage of women now comprise the US workforce?
46% or approximately 69 million women
What does the glass ceiling phenomenon suggest?
women are limited in terms of how far they can advance in the world of work.
Most research in the area of career development and its relationship to students indicates that
a very high proportion of students in high school and at the junior high or middle-school level wanted guidance in planning a career. Career interests are more stable after college.
What is Victor Vroom's theory called and what is it about?
-motivation and management expectancy theory
-employee's performance is influenced by valence, expectancy, and instrumentality.
What are the definitions of valence, expectancy, and instrumentality?
Valence=will the work provide rewards such as money, a promotion, or satisfaction?
Expectancy= what does the person feel he or she is capable of doing?
Instrumentality=will the manager actually give the employee the promised reward such as a raise?
When professional career counselors use the term leisure they technically mean
the time the client has away from work which is not being utilized for obligations.
How is career sometimes defined?
the total work one does in a lifetime plus leisure
A client who says "I feel I cannot really become an administrator in our agency because I am a woman is showing an example of
gender bias
Who is the watchdog for Title VII guidelines that prohibit discrimination on the basis of color, sex, religion, race, or national origin?
What is adverse impact?
A test or selection process is said to have adverse impact if it does not meet the 80% Four-Fifths rule.
What did the trait-and-factor theory assume?
via psychological testing, one's personality could be matched to an occupation which stressed those particular personality traits.
How does the developmental approach view career decisions?
as longitudinal and reversible.
Trait-and-factor theory or approach
also been dubbed the actuarial or matching approach
-attempts to match the worker and the work environment.
-makes the assumption that there is one best or single career for the person.
-considered the first major an most durable theory
What is Edmund Griffith Williamson associated with?
-he was chief spokesperson for the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint
-it expanded upon Parson's model to create a theory of counseling which transcended vocational issues.
What population are most popular career theories based on?
middle class or upper-middle class white males who are heterosexual and not disabled.
The trait-and-factor career counseling, actuarial, or matching approach is associated with what two people?
Parsons and Williamson
Is the trait-and-factor model grounded in differential psychology?
-the study of individual differences-YES
What is a limitation of the trait-and-factor approach?
-assumes that an individual's traits can be measured so accurately that the choice of an occupation is a one-time process.
What did Holland suggest about career development?
a person's personality needs to be congruent with the work environment
What are Roe and Brill associated with?
personality theories of career choice
What did Super emphasize?
Career Development rather than career choice.
What type of career theory do Tiedman and O'Hara support?
a decision-making theory.
The trait-and-factor or actuarial approach asserts that
testing is an important part of the counseling process and a counselor can match the correct person with the appropriate job.
What are the three steps that Parsons suggests to implement the trait-and-factor approach?
1. Knowledge of self and aptitudes and interests
2. Knowledge of jobs, including the advantages and disadvantages of them
3. Matching the individual with the work.
What are 3 statements that are true about the trait-and-factor approach?
-attempts to match the person's traits with the requirements of a job
-usually relies on psychometric information
-is associated with the work of Parsons and Williamson
Williamson's work (or the so-called Minnesota Viewpoint) claims to be what 2 things and uses what instrument?
-scientific and didactic
-Minnesota Occupational Rating Scales
Ann Roe suggested a personality approach to career choice based on
the premise that job satisfies an unconscious need.
What is another name for Ann Roe's theory?
"person-environment" theory
Explain Ann Roe's theory
-primarily psychoanalytic
-draws on Maslow's hierarchy of needs
-early child rearing practices influence later career choices since a job is a major source of gratifcation for an unconscious need.
Who was the first career specialist to utilize a two-dimensional system of occupational classification utilizing?
-fields and levels
What are Roe's 8 fields and 6 levels?
Fields: service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, arts and entertainment.
Levels: professional and managerial 1, professional and managerial 2, semiprofessional/small business, skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled.
The Gelatt Decision Model created by Harry B. Gelatt refers to information as
"the fuel of decision".
What are the three systems that the Gelatt Model asserts that information can be organized into?
predictive=probable alternatives, actions, and possibilities
value=one's relative preferences regarding the outcomes
decision=rules and criteria for evaluating the outcome
Linda Gottfredson's developmental theory of career focuses on
circumscription (restrict choices) and compromise theory
What does the OOH stand for?
the Occupational Outlook handbook, originally published by the US Dept. of Labor in 1946 to aid war veterans
-most popular source used by career counselors
At its zenith, the DOT listed approximately_____job titles. What is DOT stand for and how many digits are in each code?
Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 30,000, nine digit code
What do the digits stand for in the DOT and when was it first published?
first three=occupational category and divisions
middle three=tasks related to data, people, and things respectively
final three=alphabetizing the titles, published in 1939
Where can someone find detailed statistics about salary averages in a state?
The Bureau of Labor Statistics Website
What is the title and author of the bestselling job hunting book of all time?
What color is your parachute? by Bolles
What are two of the most popular computer-assisted career guidance programs?
DISCOVER and Sigi Plus (System of Interactive Guidance and Information)
What is the program CHOICES?
a software program for h.s. students that gives info to help them make informed decisions about career and transition planning. M.S. edition is Choices Explorer
What is an easy-to-read source for a client in search of career info?
What has the DOT been replaced with?
When does underemployment occur?
When a worker is engaged in a position which is below his or her skill level
As more people go to college, the rate of underemployment is expected to ______
How many job descriptions does the OOH contain?
approximately 800
Job trends suggest that
service jobs will account for virtually all the job growth.
The African American/Black labor force will grow about ____% or ______as fast as the White labor force.
20, twice
The ____________was published by the US Department of Labor and lists groups of jobs listed in 14 interest areas.
Guide for Occupational Exploration (GOE).
SIGI Plus, Choices, and Discover are ______
Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems (CACG).
-could also be Computer-Based Career Information Systems (CBCISs).
A client who likes her flower arranging job begins doing flower arranging in her spare time on weekends and after work. This phenomenon is best described as:
What are three key terms in the field of career counseling and their definitions?
1. contrast effect=an interviewer's impression of an interviewee is often affected by previous interviewees.
2. compensatory effect=a worker compensates or makes up for things he can't do on the job
3. Spillover=an indvidual's work spills over into his time off the job.
What are two terms utilized to describe subjective biases of individuals who rate employee performance and their definitions?
1. recency effect=occurs when a rater's judgment of an employee reflects primarily his or her most recent performance.
2. leniency/strictness bias= occurs when a rater tends to give employees very high or very low ratings while avoiding the middle or average range.
What is it called when raters rate almost everyone in the average range?
central tendency bias.
The National Vocational Guidance Association was founded in ______. It was fused with other organizations in 1952 to become_______.
APGA (American Personnel and Guidance Association) until 1983. 1983: changed its name to AACD (American Association for Counseling and Development). In 1992: changed to ACA.
What does lifestyle mean?
a broad term which describes the overall balance of work, leisure, family, and social activities. Leisure=Avocational.
The Strong Interest Inventory is based on the theory of ______. The test assumes a person who is interested in a given subject will experience
John Holland=Typology
satisfaction in a job in which those working in the occupation have similar interests.
The SII measures _____, not ________.
interests, abilities.
What is the Self-Directed Search? (SDS)
-based on the work of Holland and yieds scores on his six types
-self-scored and self-interpreted.
-1970 to help those who did not have access or could not afford professional career counseling.
What are the 5 terms that describe work (in a physical way)?
1. Sedentary=max. lifting is ten lbs.
2. Light Work-max. lifting is up to 20 lbs.
3. Med. Work=max. lifting is 50 lbs.
4. Heavy work=max. lifting is 100 lbs.
5. Very Heavy Work=Max. lifting exceeds 100 lbs.
A SDS score will reveal
an individual's three highest scores on Holland's personality types.
As you walk into a professional seminar on career counseling, you note that the instructor is drawing a hexagon on the blackboard. The instrustor is most likely discussing
John Holland.
The U.S. Employment service created the
GATB-General Aptitude Test Battery. Used by state employment security offices, Veterans Administration hospitals, and related government agencies. 12 job related aptitudes.
What is ASVAB?
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, often administered at recruiting stations or to high school seniors interested in the military.
What is DAT?
Differential Aptitude Test, 1947, helps grades 8-12 decide whether they should attend college, and if so, where they might excel the most.
Is midlife career change unusual? When does it take place and what precipitating factors help this change?
-not that unusual
-generally takes place between 35 and 45
-after divorce, having a baby, caring for a disabled child, empty nest syndrome, and most important...job dissatisfaction.
Which counselor would most likely say that we choose a job to meet our needs?
Hoppock-feels that to make an accurate career decision you must know your personal needs and find an occupation that meets a high percentage of the needs.
Who is well-known for his Career Maturity Inventory
(CMI) that measures attitudes and competencies related to the career choice process?
Two tests that support Roe's theory
Rorschach and the TAT
In terms of genetics, Roe's theory asserts that
career choice is influenced by genetics, parent-child interaction, unconscious motivators, current needs, interests, education, and intelligence.
Explain differences between job, occupation, and career
job=given position or similar positions within an organization
occupation=similar jobs occupied via different people in different settings (psychotherapists)
Career=broadest category, person's lifetime positions plus leisure.
From most specific to most general: JOC
Roe recognized the role of the _______in terms of career choice. Who also emphasized this?
unconscious mind, Bordin
What kind of model did Krumboltz work with?
Edwin Bordin felt that difficulties related to job choice are ____________
indicative of neurotic symptoms.
Today, the most popular approach to career choice reflects the work of
John Holland
Holland categorized ____personality orientations which correspond to analogous work environments.
Most experts in the field of career counseling would classify Roe, Brill, and Holland as _____theorists.
personality (or structual theory)
A bookeeper or a clerical worker would fit into what category of Holland's career stereotypes?
Conventional=someone who values conformity, structure, rules, and feels comfortable in a subordinate rule.
Hoppock's theory, based on the work of _____is also considered a personality approach.
Henry Murray.
Who created the "needs-press theory" and the TAT projective test?
Henry Murray
Who is famous for his research regarding the "expirimenter effect"
Who were the pioneer theorists in developmental career choices? (4)
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma.
What are the three stages of Ginzberg's career model?
Fantasy, Tentative, Realistic.
The most popular developmental career theorist is _____. He emphasizes ______
Donald Super, Self-concept
Super emphasizes ____life stages. What are they called?
Five: Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, Decline
Research into the phenomenon of career maturity reflects the work of ___
John Crites.
Who has focused heavily on adult career development and suggested five noteworthy factors?
Who suggested the decision-making theory and what is it about?
-Tiedman and O'Hara
-decision process is best explained by breaking it down into a two-part process
-phases are anticipation and implementation/accomodation/induction
What do all decision-making theories contend?
-the individual has the power to choose from the various career options.
John Krumboltz postulated a social learning approach to career choice. This model is based mainly on the work of
Albert Bandura
What are two popular behavior techniques for career counseling?
RJP (Realistic Job Preview) and the Guided Imagery
The model Krumboltz suggested is
a behavioristic model of career development.
What is human capital theory about?
Individuals secure education and training to get the best possible outcome.
What is the accident theory of career development?
Chance factors influence one's career
What is the status of attainment theory?
a child will eventually secure a job commensurate with his family status.
A counselor who favors a behavioristic mode of career counseling would most likely
suggest a site visit to a work setting.
Who was one of the leading pioneers who created the specific guidelines for running a behavior modification token economy?
A short answer test is a ____test.
free choice/free response
Forced Choice items are sometimes known as
recognition items
Social desirability phenomenon
the person puts the answer he feels is socially acceptable
The ____index indicates the percentage of individuals who answered each item correctly
The _____the number of people who answer a question correctly, the ____the item is.
higher, easier
Difficulty index is also called
difficulty value
A .5 difficulty index would suggest that ____% of those tested answered the questions correctly, while ____% did not
50%, 50%
you are presented with two opposing choices
Multipoint item
when a test gives a person taking the exam three or more forced choices.
Free choice
a situation in which the examinee can respond in any way he or she chooses
Explain normative and Ipsative test format
normative: each item is independent of all other items
Ipsative: compares traits within the same individual, they do not compare a person to other persons who took the instrument.
In an ipsative measure the person taking the test must compare items to one another. The result is that
you cannot legitimately compare two or more people who have taken an ipsative test.
A timed typing test used to hire secretaries would be
a speed test
A good timed/speed test is purposely set up so that how many people finish it?
Power Test
Designed to evaluate the level of mastery without a time limit.
An achievement test measures ______while a personality test or interest inventory measures_____
maximum performance, typical performance
-often used to investigate personality traits, involves a procedure in which an individual is given cards with statements and asked to place them in piles of "most like me" or "least like me"
In a spiral test, the items get progressively more ___
In a cyclical test, you have several sections which are ___in nature.
A test battery is considered a ______test.
horizontal: several measures are used to produce results that could be more accurate than those derived from merely using a single source.
The most critical factors in test selection are ___
validity and reliability
_____refers to whether the test measures what it says it measures.
______refers to how consistent a test measures an attribute.
What is the number one factor in the construction of a test?
What is the second most important concern in the construction of a test?
5 basic types of validity
content validity
-sometimes called rational or logical validity
-Does the test examine or sample the behavior under scrutiny?
construct validity
-a test's ability to measure a theoretical construct like intelligence, self-esteem, artistic talent, mechanical ability, or managerial potential
concurrent validity
-how well does the test compare to other instruments that are intended for the same purpose?
predictive validity
-also known as empirical validity
-reflects the test's ability to predict future behavior according to established criteria
2 different types of criterion validity
concurrent and predictive
consequential validity
tries to ascertain the social implications of using tests.
A test can be _____, but not _______.
reliable, valid
A test can have a ____reliability coefficient but still have ___validity.
high, low
What is the measure that would yield the highest level of reliability?
A very accurate scale: physical measurements are more reliable than psychological ones.
Any trait you cannot "directly" measure or observe can be considered a _____
construct. Ex: ego strength
A job test which predicted future performance on a job very well would
have high criterion/predictive validity
incremental validity
the process by which a test is refined and becomes more valid as contradictory items are dropped.
-a test's ability to improve predictions when compared to existing measures that purport to facilitate selection in business or educational settings.
synthetic validity
the helper or researcher look for tests that have been shown to predict each job element or component.
tests that predict each component
Evidence for reliability and validity is expressed via
correlation coefficients.
The closer the correlation coefficients are to ____ the better.
Convergent validity
-relates to both criterion and construct validity
-The relationship or correlation of a test to an independent measure or trait is known as this.
Discriminant Validity
-the test will NOT reflect unrelated variables.
The method of reliability testing that would be useful with an essay test but not with a test of algebra problems is..
A reliability coefficient of 1.00 indicates ______
a perfect score which has not error.
An excellent psychological or counseling test would have a reliability coefficient of
.90. Ninety percent of the score measured the attribute in question, while 10% of the score is indicative of error.
A researcher working with a personality test discovers that the test has a reliability coefficient of .70 which is somewhat typical. This indicates that
70% of the score is accurate while 30% is inaccurate.
70% represented the true score, while 30% could be accounted for by error. 70% is true variance while 30% constitutes error variance.
The same test is given to the same group of people using the test-retest reliability method. The correlation between the first and second administration is .70. The true variance is
To demonstrate the variance of one factor accounted for by another you merely square the correlation (reliability coefficient). So, if the reliability coefficient is .70, what is the true variance? This principle is known as the
.70x.70=.49, .49x100= 49%.
coefficient of determination.
IQ means
intelligence quotient
The early ration formula for the Binet IQ score was
MA/CA X 100
Mental Age Divided by Chronological Age
What kind of testing has the been the center of more heated debates among experts than any other type of testing?
IQ Testing
Who did research and concluded that intelligence was normally distributed like height or weight and that it was primarily genetic?
Francis Galton-felt that intelligence was a single or so-called unitary factor
Francis Galton felt intelligence was
a unitary faculty.
Who has been recognized as one of the major pioneers in the study of individual differences?
Francis Galton
What is the difference between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence?
Fluid is flexible, culture-free, and adjusts to the situation. Crystallized is rigid and does not change or adapt.
Who is rememberd for isolating 120 factors which added up to intelligence and also his thoughts on convergent and divergent thinking?
J.P. Guilford
What is convergent and divergent thinking?
Convergent occurs when divergent thoughts and ideas are combined into a singular concept. Divergent thinking is the ability to generate a novel idea.
What are some additional techniques to use when measuring the internal consistency reliability of a test?
1. The Kuder-Richardson coefficients of equivalence. (KR20 or KR21 Formulas)
2. Lee J. Cronbach's alpha coefficient.
When does cross-validation take place?
When a researcher further examines the criterion validity of a test by administering a test to a new sample.
In most cases a ________coefficient is indeed smaller than the initial validity coefficient. What is this phenomenon called?
Who created the first intelligence test?
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon
-1904 French Government wanted a test to sort out feeble-minded Parisian children from those who were normal.
Who published an English version of the Binet in 1918?
Lewis Terman of Stanford University
IQ stands for intelligence quotient, which is expressed by
MA/CA X 100
Although we still use the term IQ, the Binet today actually relies on a standard age score (SAS) with a mean of _______and a standard deviation of ____
100, 15
Some experts believe that the ______test is a better test for those who fall in the average range , while the ____is more accurate for assessing extremes of intellect.
Weschler, Stanford Binet
Today, the Stanford Binet is used from ages 2-adulthood. The IQ formula has been replaced by the
What is entropy?
A popular family therapy/systems theory term that means that dysfunctional families are either too opened or too closed.
The healthy family is said to be in a balanced state, known as
negative entropy.
The Weschler tests gained popularity , as the Binet
didn't seem to be the best test for adults
Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence : ages 2 years, 6mos. to 7 years, 3 mos.
Weschler Adult Intelligent Scale: Age 16 to Adult
Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children: ages 6 years to 16 years, 11 months.
Best intelligence test for a 6 year old girl
Who is the Merrill-Palmer Scale of Mental Tests for?
The mean on the Weschler and the Binet is _____and the standard deviation is ____.
100, 15
Group IQ tests like the Otis Lennon, The Lorge-Thorndike, and the California Test of Mental Abilities are popular in school settings. The advantage is that
group tests are quicker to administer.
_____provided the impetus for the group testing movement.
World War I
2 million men were tested using the Army _____for literates and the Army ____for illiterates and those from other countries.
Alpha, Beta
Group tests are ____accurate and have _____reliability.
less, lower
The group IQ test movement began
with the Army Alpha and Army Beta in World War 1
The Black versus White IQ controversy was sparked mainly by a 1969 article written by ____
Arthur Jensen
Who claimed he invented an electronic machine to analyze neural efficiency and take the place of paper and pencil IQ test? This device relies on a computer, an EEG, a strobe light, and an electrode helmet
John Ertl
Who is responsible for the fluid and crystallized intelligence?
Raymond B. Cattell
How are crystallized and fluid intelligence measured?
-by tests that focus on content.
-Fluid: by content-free reasoning, block design or pictorial analogy problem.
Who sparked tremendous controversy when he suggested in a 1969 Harvard Educatioal Review Article that the closer people are genetically, the more alike their IQ scores.
The MMPI-2 is a
standardized personality test.
1. # of questions
2. Suitable for what age group
3. What grade level of reading?
567, 478
over 18, 14-18
sixth grade reading level
What does the word psychometric mean?
any form of mental testing
In projective tests, the client is shown
neutral stimuli
What are 3 acceptable formats for projective tests?
A therapist who uses projectives needs ____training than one who merely works with self-report tests.
The 16 Personaltiy Factor Questionnaire (PF) reflects the work of _____
Raymond B. Cattell
What are tests and inventories that analyze data outside of a given theory called?
factor-analytic tests or inventories rather than theory-based tests.
An aptitude test is to ____as an achievement test is to ___
potential, what has been learned.
An interest inventory would be least valid when used with
an eighth grade male with an IQ of 136
Interests become quite stable around age
Interest inventories are positive in the sense that
they are reliable and not threatening to the test taker
What does AMECD stand for?
the Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, an ACA Division
When a person who is taking an interest inventory tries to answers the questions in a socially acceptable manner, what is this called?
social desirability
When an individual, purposely or when in doubt gives unusual responses, this is called
When a client always agrees with something, it is called
The standard error of measurement tells you
how accurate or inaccurate a test score is
A ______standard error means _______reliability.
low, high
If we can predict that an idividual will score between 103 and 109 68% of the time, this is known as
68% confidence interval
_____a test's length raises reliability, shortening a test's length, _______reliablity.
Increasing, lowers
What formula is used to estimate the impact that lengthening or shortening a test will have on a test's reliability coefficient?
The Spearman Brown Formula
The WAIS-III is given to 100,000 individuals in the United States who are picked at random. A counselor could expect __
approximately 68% would score between 85 and 115.
You want to admit only 25% of all counselors to an advanced training program in psychodynamic group therapy. The item difficulty on the entrance exam would be best set at
.25, mosts tests, the level is set at .5
What is Public Law 93-380 also known as? What does the law mean?
-the Buckley amendment
-persons over 18 can inspect their own records and those of their children.
FERPA stands for _______and stipulates ____
The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act,
that information cannot be released without adult consent.
Lewis Terman
Americanized the Binet, and since he was from Stanford University, the test became the Stanford-Binet.
In constructing a test you notice that all 75 people correctly answered item number 12. This gives you an item difficulty of