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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


A condition that threatens human life or property


Natural or man-made emergency which exceeds available resources

Results in significant loss of property or life


Large scale disaster-massive loss and long term recovery

Linked Event

One type of event can trigger a different type of event.

ex. rock avalanche caused by an earthquake


size of an event as measured by a defined scale


how often a type and size of event is repeated


Impact. Man-made features can both exacerbate and mitigate the impact of natural disasters

Prior History

Looking at regular recurrence intervals and making predictions off of those so you can prepare


Conditions or occurrences that precede a disaster, providing warning that an event is likely

Warning System

Sirens-Flash Floods, Tornadoes, and mass wasting


First Motion Detectors-Earthquakes

News Media for others

Risk Analysis

Hazard maps based on prior history

Retrofitting Structures

Prepare and protect buildings to withstand a particular natural disaster


every major feature of the earth was caused through sudden catastrophic events


Processes operating today did so in the past, the present is the key to the past

Chemical Properties of the Earth

Core, Mantle, Crust

Mechanical Properties of the Earth

Inner Core, Outer Core, Mesosphere, Asthenosphere, Lithsosphere





Iron+ Iron Bearing Minerals



Devoid of Iron


Inner Core



Outer Core







Ductile Solid



Broken into rigid plates-cold on outside


Shrinking Earth Theory

As the earth hardened it contracted-Ocean floors and continents are fixed

Mountains are formed by crustal contraction when the crust cooled.

(Like shrinking dried fruit)

Continental Drift

All land masses used to be together (Pangea) and have drifted apart

Had no driving mechanism

Seafloor Spreading

The seafloor is spreading at ocean ridges and being subducted along deep sea trenches

Provided a driving force for contiental drift (forming plate tectonics)

Plate Tectonics

Process by which rock material is moved from within the earth to its surface and sometimes back


The movement of materials due to differences in density

As material is heated it expands lowering its density and rises until it cools and contracts causing it to become more dense and sink

Oceanic Ridge

Submarine mountain range found to run along continental margins on either side of the Atlantic Ocean (found in other ocean basins as well)

Deep Sea Trench

Lowest areas on earth

Next to folded mountain belts

Ocean crust sinks beneath the continent (forming the trench) and powers the mountains

Magnetic Pole

Places on Earth where the polarity stays the same and affects the continents

Magnetic Reversal

Earth's magnetic polarity periodically changes directions

Polar Wandering

It appeared that the poles were located at different places for each of the continents, but it seems as if the continents have moved and the poles have remained stationary

Divergent Plate Boundary


Mostly on the sea floor-causes oceanic ridges

On land it forms continental rift systems which can eventually form ocean basins.

Shallow focus earthquakes-Volcanoes are rounded and can produce flows that layer over a wide area

Convergent Plate Boundary


On the Sea floor- oceanic trenches

On land- continental suture zones

Crust material is being consumed as one is subducted

Shallow, Intermediate and deep focus earthquakes

Convergent: Ocean-Continent

Subduction creates large volcanoes inland

(Benioff zones)

Convergent: Ocean-Ocean

creates island chains with large volcanoes

Convergent: Continent-Continent

no volcanoes but folded mountains

Transform Plate Boundary

Plates slide laterally past one another

Connects plates together and transfers energy

Little or no volcanic activity-lots of earthquakes

(San Andreas Fault)

Hot Spot

Occur where plates move over a stationary heat source - Forms a volcanic chain

Only the volcano right above the hot spot is active and the further from the hot spot you go the older the mountain

Continental Rift

As continental crust is stretched it becomes thinner and eventually produces an ocean basin

Have linear mountain ranges



Vertical uplift or subsidence of the crust in response to changes in thickness. Material is added and the crust thickens and sinks, then as it is removed by erosion the crust thins and material formed at depth rises toward the surface


Efforts to reduce consequences of natural disasters

Why does the seafloor drop in elevation away from oceanic ridges?

As it moves out it cools making it increase in density and sink to greater depths

Why does the thickness of sediment overlying basaltic oceanic rust increase away from oceanic ridges

Most of the sediment comes from the continents so the closer to the continent the more sediment there will be