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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What time period is considered when evaluating whether world-wide climate is changing?

30 years

A glacier or ice cap that is advancing can also be melting.


What gas is considered permanent in the Earth's atmosphere?


Climate Change is a "man made" problem.


A hurricane's energy source is:

Warm Ocean Water

What is a front?

The boundary between two air masses with different densities and temperatures.

Cyclones rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.


Clouds are restricted to the stratosphere.


How is heat transferred?

- Conduction

- Convection

- Radiation

What is conduction?

The transfer of heat through a substance by molecular interaction.

What is Convection?

The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid.

What is radiation?

Wave-like energy emitted by a substance that possess heat.

Thunderstorms generally last an hour.


Tropical Cyclones are associated with fronts.


Extra-tropical Cyclones are associated with fronts.


In high humidity, the perspiration of the human body loses it's effect on cooling the body.


What is lightning?

Flashes of light produced by the discharge of millions of volts of electricity. The discharges heat up the air.

Lightning heats the air to temperatures five times hotter than the surface of the sun.


Cloud to Ground lightning is very common.


Most lightning comes from cumulonimbus clouds.


What is a step leader?

A column of electrically charged air.

What are the two types of floods?



What type of flood is more deadly?


The size of the drainage basin influences the size of the flood.


What are pools?

The deep water in a stream that helps maintain cooler temperatures in warm weather and warmer temperatures in cool weather.

What is a floodplain?

The area around a river that is covered in times of flood.

What can the construction of a dam upriver cause downstream?


How can stream channelization be achieved?



- Deepening

How do most people die in avalanches?


Most avalanches have natural triggers.


What are slab avalanches?

When large amounts of compacted and often wet snow fails along weak layers of the slope. The top of the snow pack moves faster than the bottom.

Has both a crown fracture and a flank side.

What are point-release avalanches?

The initial failure of a small amount of snow, collecting more snow as it moves down slope.

It creates an inverted v shape.

What is Hoar?

Ice crystals that develop within the snow packs of a slope and have lower strength creating avalanches.

The occurrence of avalanches is influenced by points on the compass.


Snow is rare between 35 degrees N and 40 degrees S.

On what slopes are snow avalanches rare?

Slopes greater than 45 degrees.

What are the two shapes of slopes?

- Concave

- Convex

On what shape of slope are avalanches more often to occur?

Convex Slopes

What is a sluff?

A small harmless snow slide (avalanche).

Is vegetation good for the strength of a slope?

Yes, vegetation roots can act to bind loose soil which reduces the likelihood of slope failure. It also can help water soak into the ground slowly without surface erosion and thus help stabilize it.


No, it adds to the weight of a slope.

Water is a factor in nearly every kind of mass wasting (landslide).


What is a Sakung (Deep-Seated Creep)?

The slow movement of huge volumes of bedrock on steep slopes.

What is mantle creep?

The slow movement of shallow soil on top of bedrock.

What are the types of movement of Mass Wasting?

- Fall

- Slide

- Flow

- Complex

Fall movement is:

The rapid descent of material through air, on a steep slope, often caused by the freeze and thaw effect.

Very common on coastal settings.

Slide movement is:

Material that slips over one or more surfaces, is often slow and common in wet and tectonically active regions.

Can result in a flow.

Slump movement is:

Block movement on an upward curving surface that results in a backward tilt.

Flow movement is:

Loose, broken material that behaves like fluid and can travel significant distances.

Commonly starts as another failure.

What are the two types of flow movements?

- Debris Flow: mixture of mud, debris and water

- Mud Flow: less debris, more mud and water

What is factor of safety of a slope ratio?

Shear Strength over Shear Stress

What is the most widespread and dangerous type of movement?

Flow movement