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27 Cards in this Set

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Give background to Walton on the Naze

1) Coastal town in Essex


2) Made of soft London clay and red crag


3) LSD moves from south to north


4) Northern end not protected - just one grade 2 listed building


5) South far more protected - Settlement of 12000 in Walton


6) Major project in 1977 to protect Sunny Point

What hard engineering was introduced to Walton?

1) Council paid £167k in 1998 for 300 tonnes riprap around the tower breakwater


2) Groynes used to slow LSD with breakwaters too to build up a beach - 1997


3) A recurved sea wall was built to protect the London Clay cliffs - 1997

What soft engineering was introduced to Walton?

1) Beach replenishment in 1999 with and and gravel from Harwich Harbour - Most gone by 2003


2) Cliff regrading to make gentler slope and replanted with shrubs to stop people climbing it

How has flooding had an affect on a global scale?

Bolivia 2007


- Rio Grande burst, tributary of the Nile


- 100,000 homeless


- 19 died


- 343,000 affected


Sudan 2007


- River Nile burst


- 3.5m at risk if water borne diseases


- 89 killed


- 73,000 homes destroyed

Give background to Northampton

- Nene used to flood often


- Large flood in Apr 98 lead to the river management


- By 2002, £6.8m had been spent


- Further work in 2003 & 2007

What soft engineering was introduced to Northampton?

1) Flood warning system in NHam - aimed to give 2 hours notice - 2003


2) Upton Square built above flood plain level

What hard engineering was introduced to Northampton?

1) Flood retention reservoir at Billing


2) 450m clay embankment at Weedon raising land by 6.8m - Create flood storage area where water can be stored


3) Earth embankments at Upton set back 10m increased river capacity


4) 4m high floodwalls at Foot meadow close to protect industry and Castle Inn


5) Gabion boxes at Foot Meadow Close


6) Washland at Upton near sixfields, can store up to 1.2 million m³ of water in flood season


7) Roads (A45) built on 6m high embankments at Sixfields


8) 2m high floodwall at Upton nr Sixfields to protect roads

Give an example of a DIVERGENT plate boundary

Mid Atlantic Ridge

Give an example of an OCEANIC CONTINENTAL CONVERGENT plate boundary

Pacific Ring of Fire


Pacific - South African

Give an example of an OCEANIC OCEANIC CONVERGENT plate boundary

Ryuku Islands - Eurasian Phillipine Plate

Give an example of a CONTINENTAL CONTINENTAL CONVERGENT plate boundary

Eurasian - Indo-Australian plate

Give an example of a transform plate boundary

San Andreas fault


N. American - Pacific

Give an example of Hot Spots

Hawaii

What were the causes of the Montserrat eruption?

1) On a destructive plate boundary


2) Oceanic N. American Plate subducts under Caribbean plate


3) The plate melts, forming magma which rises up forming the volcanic Island of Monterserrat


4) This lava built up on a dome on the side


5) On 25/6/97 this some collapsed sending ash high into the sky and releasing gas, ash and rocks causing pyroclastic flows

Explain the environmental effects of the Montserrat eruption

1) 5m cubic metres of ash and rock were deposited


2) The pyroclastic flows caused major damage to Mosquito Ghaut scouring the earth and removing vegetation



4) Flows went as far west as the last bend in the valley before Cork Hill, flooding the river


3) Flows flattened trees around Farrell's yard4) Flows went as far west as the last bend in the valley before Cork Hill, flooding the river5) Flows flattens thousands of trees and baked the skill hard6) Some rocks were as big as 5m causing damage


yard4) Flows went as far west as the last bend in the valley before Cork Hill, flooding the river5) Flows flattens thousands of trees and baked the skill hard6) Some rocks were as big as 5m causing damage


5) Flows flattens thousands of trees and baked the skill hard


6) Some rocks were as big as 5m causing damage

Explain the human effects of the Montserrat eruption

1) Exclusion zone set up in 1995


2) Some people were inside it assuming they'd hear


3) 19 people were killed, all in the zone


4) Most were found in Stretham & Windy Hill


5) Many bodies were rigid because of the heat


6) 3 Farmer's bodies were never found and were thought to be buried


7) Common injuries included burns to the feet and nose/mouth by breathing in the hot gas


8) 7000 evacuated - 4000 to UK, 3000 to Antigua, rest to the US

Explain the effects on buildings of the Montserrat eruption

1) Villages of Farm and Trant were completely buried with 150 houses


2) All wood burned


3) Glass in windows melted and aluminium buckled


4) Some houses were just destroyed by falling rocks


5) Others like Dyer and Bethel were affected

Explain the effects on transport of the Montserrat eruption

1) Cut off from air as Bramble airport was destroyed


2) The Capital Plymouth (a port) is no longer used


3) Tourist industry had suffered - only now get visitors except cruise ships

How does Camden recycle waste?

1) Recycling at 17% in 2007


2) Twice weekly collections of waste sent to landfills in Bedford or the Energy From Waste incinerator in Edmonton


3) Veolia operates weekly doorstep recycling schemes


4) Regis road recycling centre has increased to 70% by 2008 - Upgraded in 2007 to recycle more (plastics) and be more pleasant


5) Large recycling bins in 3 parks


6) Camden first tried battery recycling

What happens to Camden's recycling?

1) Paper and card taken to Tallow, Maidenhead and made into paper products


2) Glass, cans and plastic sent to MRF facility in Brimley-by-bow


- Sorted into different types


- Glass bottles crushed into sand for buildings and pavements etc


- Plastic is made into planter pots or recycling bins


- Metal is remade into metal products


3) Food and garden waste goes to an industrial composting facility in N.London


- Shredded, put into composting tunnels then used agriculturally

What are the negatives of Coal?

1) Waste heaps are left near mines which can collapse - Aberfan distaster - Collapsed killed 116 children in 1966


2) Deep shaft mining is dangerous - 9 died in China


3) Acid rain is produced, sulphur dioxide, blown up to Scandinavia where it rains and destroys forests - UK for 16% In Norway


4) Those who live nearby breathe in small amounts of radioactive material


5) Waste Ash can seep into the water supply

What are the positives of coal?

1) Lots of it, supplies should last for 250 years and most countries have some


2) It is very easy to extract from the ground, often it is not very deep in the ground


3) It is very easy to convert into energy, you just need to burn it and use a turbine

What are the negatives of wind energy?

1) Large turbines can cost up to £3m so it is still not cheap yet


2) Each turbine can take up to 3 hectares of land away


3) Many people oppose them because they are ugly and visually obtrusive


4) They can disturb patterns of migrating birds - Norway has 9% produced by wind and 30,000 birds die a year


5) Some greenhouse gasses are given out in the production and transport

What are the positives of wind energy?

1) Has a very low carbon footprint as they do not give of any CO2


2) The wind is free so it has very low running costs


3) As the technology improves the cost will go down


4) By 2020, 15% will be wind


5) New turbines are quiet and efficient

Explain how Germany deals with municipal waste

1) 60% is recycled - 65% of industrial waste


2) From 2005 all waste has to be treated before landfill


3) THE GROUP own a treatment plant in Lubeck - 200,000 tonnes annually - Waste is sorted, incinerated then composted, and produced as low emission material


4) There are 68 incinerators which can deal with 68m tonnes of waste - Incentives to produce energy too


5) Italy exports 160,000 tonnes from Naples


6) Germany exported 1.8m tonnes in 2007


7) All recyclable products have the Grune Punkt symbol which means the cost of recycling it is covered in the product

Explain how Germany deals with Nuclear waste

1) Until 2009 Germany had contracts with the UK and France to dispose of it but these were expensive and dangerous


2) Germany doesn't have any Nuclear reprocessing plants


3) From 2013 Low level will be kept at Konrad - 95% waste 1% Radioactivity


4) From 2025 High level waste will be kept at Gorleben - 5% waste 99% radioactivity

Explain how Germany deals with toxic waste

1) It is exported to the Baltic countries or Egypt


2) In 1992 - 480t of toxic pesticides that were illegal were shipped to Albania labeled as 'Humanitarian aid for agriculture' - Contained toxaphene - Germany refused to take it back until after a lengthy court battle when they were forced to