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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cardiorespiratory system
System which supplies the kinetic chain with oxygen, nutrients, protective agents, and a means to remove waste products
Cardiovascular system
System composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction
the space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the internal organs of the chest except the lungs
Size of fist and roughly 300 g/10 oz
Heart size and weight
Cardiac muscle contraction
Fibers shorter & more tightly connected so stimulate others to contract synchronously; built in contraction rhythm & highest rhythm fibers determine rate
Typical heart rate
70-80 bpm
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Heart pacemaker in right atrium; initiates heartbeat
Atrium (atria)
The superior chambers of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the lower & larger chambers.
Right atrium
Chamber which gathers deoxygenated blood returning via the veins to the heart from the body
Left atrium
Superior left chamber which gathers reoxygenated blood returning via the veins to the heart from the lungs
The inferior chambers of the heart which receive blood from the corresponding superior & smaller chambers and force blood into the arteries; main pumps in the heart
Right ventricle
Chamber that receives deoxygenated blood from corresponding chamber and pumps it through the pulmonary artery to the lungs
Left ventricle
Chamber that receives reoxygenated blood from corresponding chamber and pumps it through the aorta artery to the body
Stroke volume (SV)
Amount of blood pumped out with each contraction of a ventricle; approximately 75-80 mL/beat
Cardiac output (Q)
SV x HR, stroke volume x heart rate
Blood weight, % of body weight, volume
Heavier than water, about 8% of total body weight, about 5L (1.5 Gal)
Blood transports
Oxygen and nutrients to tissues, waste products from tissues, hormones to organs and tissues, heat throughout
Blood regulates
Body temperature and acid balance
Blood protects what
One function of this material is to protect the body from excessive bleeding by clotting, contains specialized immune cells to help fight disease
Manually monitoring heart rate
Place index and middle fingers on thumb side of wrist about 1 in from top of wrist, using carotid causes dizziness & inaccuracy, 60 seconds for resting, 6 seconds during activity & add 0
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart, more muscular
Vessels that carry blood towards the heart, closer to surface, contain valves to keep blood flowing towards heart
Blood vessels
Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the body
The root systemic artery that receives oxygenated blood from the left ventricle and then branches to the upper and lower body; largest artery
Pulmonary arteries
Vessels that carry deoxygenated blood that has just returned from the body to the heart towards the lungs, where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen
Pulmonary veins
Vessels that carry reoxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
Superior and inferior vena cava
2 major vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium
Small terminal branches of an artery which end in capillaries
The smallest blood vessels which connect venules with arterioles
Very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins
Respiratory system
System of organs (the lungs and passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream
Respiratory pump
The combination of skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissue (muscles and pleural membranes) located in the thoracic cavity that supports inspiration and expiration
The process of actively contracting muscles to move air into the body
The process of passively relaxing (or actively contracting if heavy breathing) muscles to move air out of the body
Respiratory bones
Sternum, ribs, vertebrae
Inspiratory muscles
Normal- diaphragm, external intercostal, Deep- add scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor
Expiratory muscles
Internal intercostals, abdominals
Conduction passageways
All the passageways through which air passes before entering the respiratory passageways; nasal & oral cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, right & left pulmonary bronchi, bronchioles
Respiratory passageways
Alveoli, alveolar sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion
Oxygen consumption (VO2) at rest
About 3.5 mL /kg body weight/minute or 1 MET
VO2 max
Highest rate of oxygen consumption at maximal physical exertion, 40-80 mL/kg body weight or 11-23 METs
Submaximal VO2 protocols
Rockport Walk Test, Step Test, good generalizations but based on assumptions that can contribute to estimate errors
Requiring oxygen, if activity is prolonged for more than 30 seconds
Without requiring oxygen, less than 30 seconds
The biology of energy transformations and exchanges within the body and between it and the environment
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A cellular structure that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis
The primary element for bodily function, necessary for activity prolonged for greater than 30 seconds
Bioenergetic continuum
Three main pathways that produce ATP for energy in the body; Anaerobic- phospagen (ATP-CP) & lactic acid glycolysis (fast & slow); Aerobic- aerobic glycolysis/oxidative
Anaerobic bioenergetic pathways
ATP-CP, lactic acid glycolytic
Oxidative/aerobic pathway
Bioenergetic pathway for long-term lower intensity energy expenditure, begins with activity of 30 seconds and predominates in longer duration activities lasting more than 2 minutes; breaks down carbohydrates & fats and can produce lactic acid like glycolysis
Phospahgen system, ATP-CP (adenosine triphosphate- creatine phosphate) pathway
Anaerobic bioenergetic pathway for high-intensity short-duration activities lasting up to about 10 seconds (2 reps, short sprint); activated at start of any activity; energy from breaking phosphate bonds
Lactic acid glycolysis pathway
Anaerobic pathway for moderate-to-high-intensity moderate-duration activities lasting 30-50 seconds (8-12 reps); breaks down carbohydrates (glucose) to produce ATP
Byproduct of glycolysis; if can't be used fast enough by cell, lactic acid will build up and interfere with muscle contraction
Shallow breathing
Often due to stress/anxiety; if chronic, causes overuse of secondary respiratory muscles resulting in headaches, light-headedness, and dizziness causing further anxiety