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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is flexibility? Page 162
Page 162: the normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint
What is extensibility? Page 162
Page 162: the capability of tissue to be elongated or stretched
What is dynamic range of motion? Page 163
Page 163: the combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control range of motion efficiently
What factors influence flexibility? Page 163
Page 163: genetics, connective tissue elasticity, composition of tendons or skin surrounding the joint, joint structure, strength of opposing muscle groups, body composition, sex, age, activity level, previous injuries or existing medical issues, repetitive movements or pattern overload
What is neuromuscular efficiency? Page 163
Page 163: ability of the neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonist, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize the entire kinetic chain and all three planes of motion. Requires flexibility in all three planes
What is postural distortion patterns? Page 164
Page 164: predictable patterns of muscle and balances
What is relative flexibility? Page 165
Page 165: the tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
What can poor flexibility lead to? Page 165
Page 165: the development of relative flexibility or altered movement patterns to compensate
What is muscle imbalance? Page 166
Page 166: alterations of muscle length surrounding a joint which may be overactive or underactive causes include postural stress, emotional duress, repetitive movement, cumulative trauma, poor training technique, lack of core strength, or lack of neuromuscular efficiency
What is reciprocal inhibition? Page 167
Page 167: the simultaneous contraction of one muscle well the relaxation of the antagonist allows movement to take place
What is synergistic dominance? Page 167
Page 167: the neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when an appropriate muscles take over the function of a week or inhibited prime mover specifically when one muscle takes over for another that is weaker
What is arthrokinetic dysfunction? Page 167
Page 167 altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint such as when bad posture or set up for a movement leads to other muscles working inefficiently
What is autogenic inhibition? Page 169
Page 169: the process by which neural impulses sense tension are greater than the impulses causing the muscles to contract providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles
Approximately how much time must pass for the Golgi tendon organ to override the signal from the muscle spindle? Page 169
Page 169: approximately 30 seconds
When is flexibility training used? Page 170
Page 170: correcting muscle imbalances, increasing joint range of motion, decreasing the excessive tension of muscles, relieving joint stress, improving the extensibility of the musculotendinous junction, maintaining the normal functional length of all muscles, improving neuromuscular efficiency, improving function
What is pattern overload? Page 170
Page 170: consistently repeating the same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stress on the body
Describe the cumulative injury cycle. Page 171
Page 171: tissue trauma , inflammation, muscle spasm, adhesions, altered neuromuscular control, muscle imbalance
Describe the effects of Davis’s Law. Page 171 to 172
Page 171 to 172: upon tissue injury, the soft tissue is rebuilt into inelastic collagen matrices that inhibit flexibility and may not be in the same direction of the muscle fibers resulting in the creation of alterations in normal tissue extensibility and causes relative flexibility
What are the three phases of the flexibility continuum? Page 173
Page 173: corrective flexibility, active flexibility, functional flexibility
What are four types of stretches? Page 174 - 175
Page 174 to 175: self - myofascial releases, static stretching, active stretching, dynamic stretching
How are myofascial release is completed? Page 177
Page 177: the client looks for tenderness or not and puts pressure on the spot for a minimum of 30 seconds . Note it may take longer depending on client ability to consciously relax
What is static stretching? Page 179
Page 179: the process of possibly taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 30 seconds
What is active isolated stretching? Page 185
Page 185: the process of using agonists and synergist to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion
When are active isolated stretches recommended? Page 185
Page 185: for pre-activity warm up
What should be the duration of during active isolated stretching? Page 185
Page 185: 1 - 2 sets for holding each stretch of 1 to 2 seconds for 5 to 10 repetitions
What is dynamic stretching? Page 190
Page 190: the active extension of a muscle using force production and momentum to move the joint through the full available range of motion