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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Components of a Fitness Assessment


General and medical history

Occupation, lifestyle, personal 411


Physiologic assessment

Body composition testing


Static and dynamic postural assessments

Performance assessments

Subjective information

Gathered from a client to give personal trainer feedback regarding personal history - ie: occupation, lifestyle, personal information (medical)

Low Risk

No signs or symptoms of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease. <1 cardiovascular risk factor

Moderate Risk

No signs of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease, but >2 cardiovascular risk factor

High Risk

One or more signs of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease.

Physical Activity Readiness Questionaire

Designed to determine safety or possible risk of exercising for a client based on answers to specific questions on health history

When client answers YES to 1 or more questions, refer to physician.

General Health History

Collection of information that is generally part of medical physical, or medical health history. Discusses relevant facts about client's history including biographic, demographic, occupational, lifestyle.

Extended periods of sitting

Hips flexed for a long time. Tight hip flexors, and postural imbalances. Tendency for shoulders and neck to fatigue, leading to postural imbalances (rounding shoulders, or head forward)

Repetitive movements

Can create pattern overload to muscle and joints. Example: Arms overhead creates sore shoulders and neck, and tightness in lats

Mental Stress

Elevates resting heart rate, blood pressure, and ventilation at rest and exercise. Can lead to abnormal breathing patterns that can cause postural or musculoskeletal imbalances in neck, shoulder, chest, low back.

Chronic Conditions

Cardiovascular disease, hypertension (high BP), high cholesterol, stroke, peripheral artery disease, lung or breathing problems, obesity, diabetes, cancer

Objective Information Provided in Fitness Assessments (6)

Physiological measurements

Body composition assessments

Cardiorespiratory assessments

Static posture assessment

Movement assessment

Performance assessment

Measurement Types

Physiological Measurements (blood pressure, heart rate)

Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body fat, circumference)

Fitness (muscular endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory)


Heart Rate

Taken at cartoid (neck) or radial (wrist)

Average resting HR = 70-80.

Average male resting HR = 70

Average female resting HR = 75

Target Heart Rate Training Zones

One: builds aerobic base and aids in recovery

Two: increases aerobic and anaerobic endurance

Three: builds high end work capacity

Straight Percentage Method

(Calculating target heart rate)

220 - age = Max HR. Multiply MaxHR by appropriate intensity (65-95%)

Zone 1: MaxHR x 0.65to0.75

Zone 2: MaxHR x 0.76-0.85

Zone 3: MaxHR x 0.86-0.95

Heart Rate Reverse Method HRR

(calculating target heart rate)

TargetHR = [(HRmax - HRrest) x desired intensity] + HRrest

Blood Pressure

The pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after blood is ejected from the heart.

Top # = Systolic

Bottom # = Diastolic


(blood pressure)

Top number.

Represents pressure within the arterial system after heart contracts.

Acceptable = <120


(blood pressure)

Bottom number.

Represents pressure within the arterial system when heart is resting and filling with blood

Acceptable = <80

Body composition

Relative % of body weight that is fat vs. fat-free tissue. Fat free mass is muscles, bones, water, connective tissues and organs.

Essential fat

Non essential fat (adipose tissue)

Suggested 15% for men, 25% for women

Body composition testing

Skin fold

Bioelectrical impedance

Underwater weighing

Calculating BF%

NASM uses Durnin Formula. Biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest.

Add all 4 measures, find appropriate age/sex category

Circumference measurements

Measures girth of body. Does not give good measure of fat

Neck, chest, waist, hips, thighs, calves, biceps

Waist to hip ratio

Waist to Hip Ratio = Waist (in) / Hip (in)

Correlation between chronic disease and fat stored in midsection

Risk = >0.80 for women, >0.95 for men

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI = 703 x (Weight (lb) / Height^2 (in))

BMI = Weight (kg) / Height^2 (cm)

Person's weight should be proportional to height.

Lowest risk for disease lies within BMI range of 22 to 24.9

YMCA 3-min Step Test

(cardiorespiratory assessment)

Step 1: 3 min step test, about 96 steps, 12 inches high

Step 2: Within 5 sec of completion, test heart rate. Recovery pulse.

Step 3: Locate recovery pulse on chart

Step 4: determine appropriate starting program using appropriate category. Poor Zone one(65-75%), Fair Zone one(65-75%), Average Zone Two(76-85%), Good Zone two(76-85%), Very good zone three(86-95%)

Step 5: determine client’s maximal heart rate by subtracting client’s age from the number 220 (220-age), then take maximal heart rate and multiply by zones to determine heart rate ranges for each zone.

Rockport Walk Test

(cardiorespiratory assessment)

Record client’s weight. Have client walk one mile, as fast as he or she can control, on treadmill. Record time. Immediately record client’s heart rate at the 1 mile mark.

Step 2 - Figure out oxygen consumption

VO2 Score = 132.85 - (0.0769xWeight) - (0.3877xAge) + (6.315 x gender) - (3.2649xtime) - (0.1565xHR)

Gender = 1 Male, 0 Female


Joint movement

Kinetic chain

Human movement system

Static posture

How a person presents themselves in stance. Roadmap of how a person has been using their body over a given amount of time

Three basic compensatory patterns

1) Pronation distortion

2) Lower crossed syndrome

3) Upper crossed syndrome

Pronation Distortion

(compensatory patterns)

Postural distortion characterized by foot pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees (knock knees)

Lower Crossed Syndrome

(compensatory pattern)

Postural distortion characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back)

Upper Crossed Syndrome

(compensatory pattern)

Forward head and rounded shoulders

Static Postural Assessment

Checking for neutral alignment, symmetry, balanced muscle tone, and specific postural deformities. View from multiple vantage points (anterior, posterior, lateral)

Kinetic Chain Checkpoints



Lumbo pelvic hip complex


Head/cervical spine

Observing Dynamic Posture

Posture while in movement. Shows postural distortion and potential overactive and underactive muscles.

Overhead Squat Assessment

Designed to assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control.

Reflects lower extremity movement patterns during jump-landing tasks

Knee valgus (knock knees) influenced by decreased hip abductor and hip external rotation strength, and restricted ankle dorsiflexion.

Compensations: Anterior View

Overhead Squat Assessment

Feet: Do feet flatten or turn out?

Knees: Do knees move inward (adduct and internally rotate)?

Compensations: Lateral View

Overhead Squat Assessment

Lumbo Pelvic Hip complex: Does low back arch? Does torso lean forward excessively?

Shoulder: Do arms fall forward?

Single leg squat assessment

Also assess dynamic flexibility, core strength, balance, and overall neuromuscular control.

Knee Valgus

(influenced by?)

Decreased hip abductor and hip external rotation strength, increased adductor activity, and restricted ankle dorsiflexion.

Compensations: Anterior View

Single leg squat

Knee: Does the knee move inward (adduct and internally rotate)?

Pushing Assessment

Assesses movement efficiency and potential muscle imbalances during pushing movements

Compensations: lateral view

Pushing Assessment

Low back: Does low back arch?

Shoulders: Do shoulders elevate?

Head: Does head migrate forward?

Pulling Assessment

To assess movement efficiency and potential muscle imbalances during pulling movements

Compensations: Lateral view

Pulling assessment

Low back: Does low back arch?

Shoulders: Do shoulders elevate?

Head: Does the head migrate forward?

Performance Assessments

Used for clients looking to improve athletic performance. Measures upper extremity stability and muscular endurance, lower extremity agility, and overall strength.

Types of performance assessments

Push up test

Davies test (hold in push up stance, alternate touching left and right hands)

Shark skill test (timed box square test, single foot, hands on hips, center square)

Upper extremity strength assessment

Bench press.

Lower extremity strength assessment