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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is nutrition? Page 462
Page 462: the process by which a living organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and repair of tissues
What are examples of nutrition topics that a fitness professional may have who is not a nutritionist? Page 464
Page 464: food preparation methods, healthy snacks, statistical information on the relationship between chronic disease and the excesses or deficiencies of specific nutrients, vitamins and minerals as essential nutrients, food guidance systems such as the food pyramid or my plate, carbohydrate, protein, and fat basics, nutrients contained in foods or supplements, the importance of water and hydration status
What is a calorie? Page 465
Page 465: the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius
What are the effects of exercise on resting metabolic rate ? Page 466
Page 466: energy expenditure can be elevated between 10 and 90 minutes after exercise depending on intensity and duration, regular chronic exercise may affect RMR slightly, changes in the fat free mass from exercise training can increase or decrease resting metabolic rate
What is a protein? Page 468
Page 468: amino acids linked by peptide bonds
What is unique about essential amino acids? Page 468
Page 468: cannot be manufactured in the body or are insufficiently manufactured, therefore they must be obtained from a food supply or some other exogenous source
What are sources of protein? Page 471
Page 471: meats, fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy products, and protein supplements
What is required when an individual consumes large quantities of protein? Page 475
Page 475: a greater need for fluid consumption because protein requires approximately 7 times the water for metabolism and carbohydrate or fat
How could supplemental protein be useful? Page 476
Page 476: to quickly get amino acids into the blood before and after weight training, to replace whole food proteins for weight loss, in situations when whole food is not available, for bodybuilders wrestlers are other weight conscious athletes preparing for competition
What are carbohydrates? Page 477
Page 477: neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen such as sugar, starches and cellulose is which make up a large portion of animal food
What are additional benefits of fiber? Page 479
Page 479: provides belt and the diet thus increasing satiety values of foods, some fibers off the delay the emptying of the stomach , prevent constipation and establishes regular bowel movements, may reduce the risk of heart and artery disease, regulates the Bloods absorption of glucose, high fiber meals have been shown to exert regulatory effects on blood glucose levels for up to five hours after eating
What should a client consider when exercising for more than an hour? Page 481
Page 481: consuming carbohydrates during exercise can help supply glucose to working muscles while whose glycogen stores are dwindling therefore increasing time to exhaustion by 20-60 minutes
What do carbohydrates supply the body with? Page 483
Page 483: nutrition that fat and protein can not from complex carbohydrates, satiety by keeping glycogen stores full and adding salt to the diet, proper cellular fluid balance, proper blood sugar levels, spare protein for building muscle
Why does the body need carbohydrates? Page 483
Page 483: they are perfect and preferred form of energy, consistently need to be replaced causing a craving that must be satisfied, parts of the central nervous system rely exclusively on carbohydrate, efficiently burn and use fat and protein
What is the recommended carbohydrate intake? Page 483
Page 483: diet should contain 25 - 80 grams of fiber per day, carbohydrate intake typically should be between 45 and 65% of total caloric intake according to preference, performance, and satiety
What are lipids? Page 485
Page 485: a group of compounds that includes triglycerides such as fats and oils, phospholipids, and sterols
What are fats involved in in the body? Page 486
Page 486: cellular membrane structure and function, precursors to hormones, cellular signals, regulation and excretion of nutrients in the cells, surrounding, protecting, and holding in place organs such as the kidneys heart and liver, insulating the body from environmental temperature changes and preserving body heat, prolonging the digestive process by slowing the stomach secretion of hydrochloric acid, creating a longer lasting sensation of fullness after a meal, initiating the release of the hormone CCK which contributes to satiety
What are food sources of monounsaturated fats? Page 486
Page 486: olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, avocados, peanuts, almonds, pistachios
What are food sources of polyunsaturated fats? Page 486
Page 486: vegetable oil such as a flower, soy, corn, and sunflower, Omega - 3 fatty acids such as herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, and flax seeds, most nuts and seeds
What are food sources for saturated fats? Page 486
Page 486: meat, poultry, lard, butter, cheese, cream, eggs, whole milk, tropical oils such as coconut oil palm oil and palm kernel oil, and many baked goods
What food sources have trans fats? Page 486
Page 486: stick margarine and shortening, fried foods such as fried chicken and donuts, fast food, and many baked goods and pastries
Why does the body need fat? Page 489
Page 489: energy, structure and membrane function, precursors to hormones, cellular signals, regulation of uptake and excretion of nutrients in the cells
What is the recommended fat intake? Page 489
Page 489: between 20 to 35% of total caloric intake and 20 to 25% for athletes, appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming less than 15% of energy from fat, a high polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio is desirable, more than 35% leads to overeating of lack of food volume and often slows the metabolism
How does water benefit the body? Page 490
Page 490: endocrine gland function improves, luid retention is alleviated, liver functions improve, increasing percentage of fat used for energy, natural thirst returns, metabolic functions improve, nutrients are distributed throughout the body, body temperature regulation improves, blood volume is maintained
What are the effects of dehydration? Page 491
Page 491: decrease blood volume, decreased performance, decreased blood pressure, decreased sweat rate, increased core temperature, water retention, increased heart rate, sodium retention, decreased cardiac output, decreased blood flow to the skin, increase perceived exertion, increased use of muscle glycogen
What are the guidelines for fluid replacement in athletes? Page 491
Page 491: consume 14 - 22 ounces of fluid 2 hours before exercise, drink 6 to 12 ounces of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes of exercise, fluid should be cold because of rapid gastric emptying, if exercise exceeds 60 minutes use a sports drink containing up to 8% carbohydrate, drink water for exercise in less than 60 minutes, goal is to replace sweat and urine losses, and just 16 to 24 ounces of fluid for every pound of body weight loss after an exercise about especially of rapid rehydration is necessary as in twice a day training
What are small changes that can be made for fat loss? Page 492
Page 492: small decreases and food and beverage calories with increase in physical activity, distribute protein carbohydrate and fat throughout the day, consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fat, choose whole grains in fiber rich foods, limit alcohol consumption, schedule no fewer than four and as many as six meals a day, avoid empty calories and highly processed foods, drink plenty of water a minimum of 9 - 13 cups per day, have clients weigh and measure food for at least one week to make them more aware of Florida values and serving sizes
What are the small changes that could be made for lean body mass gain? Page 492
Page 492: eat 4-6 meals a day because insulin response to a meal stimulates protein synthesis, spread protein intake throughout the day to take advantage of the previous step, keep in mind the post workout window of opportunity ingestion of protein and carbohydrate within 90 minutes of a workout will increase recovery and proteins synthesized maximizing gains, do not neglect the importance of carbohydrate and fat and makes more than protein to increase lean body mass
What popular diets have less than 21% of carbohydrate intake? Page 493
Page 493: Atkins diet, protein power plan, ketogenic diet
What popular diet have 21 - 42% carbohydrate intake? Page 493
Page 493: Zone diet, carbohydrate addicts diet, Abs Diet, South Beach Diet, sugar Busters, testosterone diet
What popular diet have 43 to 50% carbohydrate intake? Page 493
Page 493: average American diet
What popular diets have 51 - 60% carbohydrate intake? Page 493
Page 493: RDA food pyramid, Flat Belly Diet, Mediterranean diet
What popular diet have more than 60% carbohydrates? Page 493
Page 493:Dean Ornish, Pritikin diet
What is the average amount of weight loss after one year regardless of diet? Page 494
Page 494: approximately five to seven pounds regardless of diet plan
What are risks to overly restrictive diet? Page 495
Page 495: increased risk of malnutrition, for energy and inability to complete the essential fitness program, behavioral pendulum swings, and ability to reintroduce or forbidden foods and a moderate manner, many patients on the low carb diet for 4 to 16 weeks report minor side effects such as fatigue, constipation, nausea, or diarrhea with the most serious side effect is gallstone formation people who are obese especially women are at higher risk of getting gallstones and they are even more common during rapid weight loss