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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the 3 main purposes of food ?
1- Basal body activities
2- To cover expenditure of energy in simple daily activities, e.g. sitting, standing, walking.
3- For work activities
What is the energy requirement for a sedentary lifestyle ?
Basal metabolic rate BMR x 1.4
What are the essential requirements of a diet ?
Carbohydrate (CHO)
Fat (lipid)
Vitamins – A, D, E, K, B complex, C
Minerals – μg -> g/day
What is the recommended dietary requirements ?
Fat <35% (saturates <11%)
Protein 15%
Starches 40%
Sugars 11%
Salt < 6g/day
Non-starch polysaccs: 18g/day
How many AA are essential ?
How much protein is used per a day and how many used for energy daily ?
A 1 gram and 30 grams
As Amino acids are not stored, what are they used for ?
To synthesise enzymes and hormones
To build new tissue
To manufacture protein
What are the essential amino acids ?

Tryptophan, Valine, Threonine, Isoleucine Leucine, Lysine, Phenylalanine, Methionine, and Histidine (in children
What is Kwashiorkor & Marasmus ?
Severe protein deficiency
Protein is deficient is 1 or more essential aa
Maize lacks tryptophan, NV =40%.
What are the symptoms of Kwashiorkor & Marasmus ?
listless, mentally depressed,
ceases to grow and actually loses weight
eventually become oedematous because
the colloid osmotic pressure of plasma
falls as albumin formation by liver
ceases and plasma albumin is lowered.
Often show hair and skin problems
Another side effect of protein deficiency ?
Bone fractures-patients may lose nitrogen from the body due to increased secretion of the adrenocortical hormones.
Polyunsaturated ?
2 families of PUFAs, omega-6 from linoleic acid & omega-3 from α-linolenic acid
Whats the difference between vegetable and animal fat ?
Vegetable fat- unsaturated and liquid
Animal fat- saturated and solid
At room temp
Why is fat important in the diet ?
High energy value
Vehicle for fat soluble vitamins
For essential fatty acids- linoleic acid (omega-6), linolenic acid (omega-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid
Linoleic also forms prostaglandins
Current dietary requirements ?
that intake of
saturated fats (from animal and dairy products) should
be reduced and replaced by mono- and poly-
unsaturated fats, which are less likely to cause
cardiovascular disease
Where do polysaccharides come from ?
Vegetables, cereals & pulses, in form of plant starch
Where do monosaccharides and disaccharides come from ?
milk, fruits, table sugar) and fibre
What is fibre ?
components of plants, mainly complex carbohydrates, which are not completely digested by human digestive enzymes, & Includes waxes, lignin and non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose, beta glucan, guar gum and pectin
What is insoluble fibre ?
non-digested plant cell wall material (cellulose, hemicellulose).
Plentiful in seeds and wholemeal etc
What does insoluble fibre do differently ?
Stimulates peristalsis by distension and decreasing transit time of faecal material through the large intestine. Hence, less water is absorbed and the problems of constipation are avoided. Also reduces risk of bowel cancers & diverticulitis
Where does soluble fibre come from ?
Soluble fibre comes from fruit, vegetables and pulses (pectin, guar, lignin). Evidence suggests this type of fibre lowers blood cholesterol and may protect against cardiovascular disease. Helps with control of blood glucose.
What happens if you do not have vitamins ?
Characteristic biochemical breakdowns or 'lesions' develop, which may or may be accompanied by structural changes.
How much body weight can be loss without damage ?
25% without permanent damage
Why is rapid weight loss dangerous ?
As it disturbs the electrolyte balance- Na, K and Cl. Important for nerve and muscle function and at worst it disrupts cardiac impulses = heart failure.
What are the two mechanisms of controlling food intake ?
Short term- (gastro-intestinal)
Long term- (nutritional)
What is gastro-intestinal regulation ?
The primary immediate effects of eating, it may initiate inhibitory effects to suppress the activity of the feeding centre and reducing the desire for food. This may be down to hormones or the nutritional
value of the food itself
What is nutritional regulation ?
The nutrient stores of the body falls, the feeding center of the hypothalamus becomes highly active and the person exhibits increased hunger.
What nutritional factors may control the degree of activity of the feeding center ?
Availability of glucose to the cells
Blood glucose low = eat more
Adipose tissue
Adipose produces leptin, leptin suppresses appetite
Thermal intake
Food intake = higher temperature= higher metabolic activity= satiety
What are lips and cheeks made out of ?
skeletal muscle embedded in elastic fibro connective tissue and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. Keratinised on gums, tongue and hard palate
What is the tongue made out of ?
Body and root is skeletal muscle, intrinistic- change shape, extrinisic- movement. Interwoven with glands and covered with mucous