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46 Cards in this Set

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arthrospores?
hyphal segements formed by fragmentation of hyphae
conidispores?
size variation?
formed at tips of hyphae -
if small: microconidia
if large: macroconidia
sporangia
spherical, sac-like structures containing sporangiospores
anamorphs
fungi asexual spores that can be simple, single-cell bodies or can be multicellular
telomorphs
sexual reproduction structure
holomorph
the whole fungus
homothallic
sexual repro occurs when a single colony reproduces
heterothallic
sexual repro of two different (+ and -) colonies
saphrophyte
fungi grow on living or dead organisms
mannan
glycoprotein component of fungal cell walls - supresses lymphoblast formation and lymphocyte prolif. also inhibits keratinocyte prolif allowing for persistent infection and slower epidermal turnover.
KOH
quick, inexpensive, causes most tissues to be dissolved away - leave fungal elements to be seen w/ light microscope.
periodic acid-schiff reaction (PAS)
stains polysaccharides. aldehyde groups bind to basic fuchsin and stain fungal elements red.
giemsa stain
intracellular structures stained blue with halo around them.
nigrosin stain
shows capsules around cell walls.
flucytosine
interferes with pyrimidine metabolism
griseofulvin
disruption of mitotic spindles
pentamidine isethionate
interferes with nuclear metabolism by inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synth
amphotericin B and nystatin
bind to ergosterol and increase membrane permeability
fluconazole
itraconazole
ketoconazole
miconazole
thiabendazole
inhibit ergosterol synthesis
terbinafines
kill fungi by causing toxic accumulation of squalenes which deplete ergosterol
aflatoxicosis
toxin: aflatoxin B
made by: aspergillus flavus
effects: vomiting, abd pain, pulm edema, fatty infiltration, liver necrosis
erythrematous skin
made by: cladosporium cladosporoides
effects: erythema of skin
ergotism
ergo alkaloids produce muscle inflammation and pain - prickly sensation in limbs.
aflatoxicosis
aspergillus flavus
grows on peanuts, maize, or wheat - makes aflatoxin B

Sx= vomit/abd pain/pulm edema/fatty infiltration and necrosis of liver
erythematous skin
cladosporium cladosporoides
grows on fescue grass
causes erythema of skins
ergotism
claviceps purpurea
grows on rye
makes ergot alkaloids
sx: swollen, imflamm musc - grangrenous or convulsive ergotism
alimetary toxic aleukia
org: fusarium nygamai
grows on prosomillet and wheat
makes fusonium
sx: hematopoetic sys malfunc, bone marrow atrophy, agranulocytosis, sepsis, d/v/f, leukpenia
red mold and black spot dz
org: fuasium chlamydosporum
grows on wheat or barley
sx: h/v/d, anorexia
cardiac beriberi
org: penicillium citreoviridaeis
grows on rice
makes citrinin
sx: vomiting, convulsions, ascending paralysis and resp arrest
fungal mycotoxicosis
ingestion of fungal mycotoxins by fungi on food
mycophagy
consumption of fleshy fungi resulting in diff types of mycetismus (fungal induced systemic poisoning)
mycetismus cerebralis
orgs: paneolus, psilocybe, stropharia

sx: 30-60min after ingestion. hallucinogenic
mycetismus choleriformis
orgs: amanita, galerina

sx: n/v/d w/i 6-24hrs. leads to dehydration, musc cramps, coma, salivation, and death
mycetismus gastrointestinalis
orgs: boletus, entoloma, lactarius, lepiota, and russula

sx: n/v/d 1-6hrs after ingestion. last 36-72hrs
mycetismus nervosa
orgs: amanita, inocybe

sx: 1-2hrs after ingestion. d/v sweating, convulsions, delirium, hallucination, coma, card/resp fail
mycetismus sanguinarius
orgs: helvella (resemble morchella)

sx: hemoglobinuria, hemolysis, jaundice -6-8hrs after ingestion
air-conditioning lung
inhalation of air conditioner water aerosols. contain aspergillus clavatus - causes cough and pneumonia
asthma
orgs: alternaria, aspergillus, curvularia, penicillium.

IgE response causes sx
basidiomycosis
org: coprinus and schizophyllum

sx: inhalation of spores = lung lesions, meningitis, endocarditis
cheese-washers dz
org: penicillium casei

allergic rxn to cheese casings - skin rash and resp problems
farmers lung
org: aspergillus, penicillium

sx: inhalation of hay. fibrotic deposits and lung infiltrations and granulomas.
lycoperdonosis
org: lycoperdon, calvatia

sx: inhalation of spores. cough and pneumonitis
malt-workers dz
org: aspergillus on moldy barley

sx: cough and pneumonia
maple bark strippers dz
org: cryptostroma corticale

grows on the bark of maple trees

sx:cough and congestion
mushroom growers lung
org: pleurotus ostreatus

sx: cough and labored breathing
stachybotryotoxicosis
org: stachybotrys atra (inhale hay)

sx: conjunctivitis, rhinitis, fever, chest pain, and leukopenia