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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
the premise that a gene is a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide
the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA
the actual synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA
RNA processing
modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes
primary transcript
an intial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA
triplet code
the genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain
template strand
the DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript
mRNA bases consisting of 3 amino acids
reading frame
the way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
the DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches and initiates transcription
the sequence that signals the end of transcription
transcription unit
the stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
transcription factors
collection of proteins that mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcription
transcription initiation complex
the completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter
TATA box
crucial promoter DNA sequence that helps form the initiation complex
5' end; helps protect the mRNA from degradation by hydrolytic enzymes, and functions as part of an "attach here" sign for ribosomes
poly(A) tail
inhibits degradation of the RNA and probably helps ribosomes attach to it
RNA splicing
the removal of a large portion of the RNA molecule that is intially synthesized
the noncoding segments of nucleic acid tjay lie btw coding regions
a coding region of a eukaryotic gene; separated by introns
several different snRNPs join with additional proteins that form an even larger assembly
RNA molecules that function as enzymes
alternative RNA splicing
a number of genes are known to give rise to 2 or more different polypeptides, depending on which segments are treated as exons during RNA processing
proteins that often have a modular architecture consisting of discrete structural and functional regions
transfer RNA (tRNA)
the interpreter in which a series of codons along an mRNA molecule messages for
base-pairs with a complementary codon on mRNA
relaxation of the base-pairing rules
aminoacyt-tRNA synthetase
a specific enzyme in which each amino acis is joined to the correct mRNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
thr ribosomal subunits that are constructed of proteins and RNA molecules
P site
holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain
A site
holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
E site
(exit site) discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome from this site
brings together mRNA, a tRNA bearing the first amino acid of the polypeptide, and the 2 subunits of a ribosome
amino acids are added one by one to the preceding amino acid
the endig stage of translation
strings of ribosomes
signal peptide
tragets the protein to the ER
signal-recognition particle (SRP)
a protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome
changes in the genetic material of a cell
point mutation
chemical changes in just one base pair of a gene
base-pair substitution
the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand with another pair of nucleotides
missense mutations
altered codons still code for an amino acid and thus makes sense, although not necessarily the right sense
nonsense mutations
lead to nonfunctional proteins; alterations tht change an amino acid codon to a stop signal
addition of nucleotide pairs in a gene
a loss of nucleotide pairs in a gene
frameshift mutations
occurs whenever the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three
a number of physical and chemical agents that interact with DNA to cause mutations