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39 Cards in this Set

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Islam

"submission to the will of God"



Ahl al-Khatib

"people of the book" Consisting of Jews and Christians



Shirk

unforgivable sin: anyone rejecting the Qur'an or associating partners with god

Muhammad

Last prophet or "seal of the prophets"(570-632)


-a messenger


-born in Mecca, business man, hired by Khadijah and later married


-beleived in the trials of abraham


-first vission from god on Mt. Jabal-an-Nur

Fitrah

Innate human goodness



Tawbah

To turn towards god in repentance



Emic

Insiders perspective, recounts of the revelations, most of the Qur'an fashioned from early Muslim biographers


Etic

research done by an outside observer

Hijra

Muhammads first journey from Mecca to Medina

A "chapter" in the Qur'an

Surah



The first chapter of the Qur'an

al-fatina or "the opening"

Jahiliyyah

The Muslim age of ignorance

The 2 notable regions in Islam

Yatrib (Medina), Ta'if, Mecca


-Mecca was a crossroads for 2 major trade routes from Yemen to Syria

Sunni Muslims

Swearing of allegiance to Muhammad's father in law Abu Bakr after Muhammad's death

Shi'ite Muslims

belief that the next leader should be a direct descendant of the prophet, assigning Ali ibn Abu Talib the khalifah (calif)

Rashidan: The 4 righteous leaders

Abu Bakr--> Umar bin al-Khatib--> Uthman bin Affan --> Ali ibn abu Talib

Abu Bakr

the clear choice for khalifah according to sunni Muslims


-knowledge of tribes and politics in arabian peninsula


-Quraysh origin

Umar bin al-khattab

The second appointed Khalifah


-Stern, uncompromising, generous to the ahl al-khatib


-poll tax: compensation for protection of christians


-assassinated by Persian slave

Dhimmi

Protection of non-Muslim people under Muslim rule



ridda

"apostasy" or turning away from religion


-after the death of the prophet Muhammad



Uthman bin Affan

3rd appointed Khalifah


-single written definitive version of Qur'an



Ali ibn Abu-Talib

4th appointed Khalifah


-cousin of Muhammad and married to youngest favorite daughter Fatima


-leader of Kufrah peeople against the Quyrash people from Barsa in first civil war


-assassinated in 661

Fitnah

Civil discord



Hussien

Grandson of Muhammad


-Found a shi'ite or shia following in Mecca


-brutally murdered by 500 soldiers with yazid son of Muawiyyah

kalam

The study of divine speech in Islam, the beginnings of theology

Sunnah

the way of the prophet muhammad

'Ulema

The scholars of Islam



Qadar

divine predestination, argument apposed to free will in humans



Mutazilite

First school theological school of thought: rationalist approach



Hanbalite

First school of theological thought: traditionalist approach

Hadith

Written reports of the prophets sayings and actions

The major distinction between Mutazilites and Hanabilites



Mutazilites: God reveals what is good


Hanabilites: What God reveals is good

Twelver shi'ites

larhgest shi'ite sect, line of imams ended at the 12th imam Muhammad al-Mahdi


-add statements to call to prayer "Ali is friend/Saint of God"


-permit temporary marriages



Shari'ah

source of Islamic law: refers to the sacred law, the divine balance that Muslims are expected to uphold


-Consists of Quiyas and ijma

salat

Daily prayer



qiyas

Analogical reasoning, applying the Shari'ah to current lifestyle

Ijma

"consensus" agreement of all jurists

fiqh

Juriprudence or the ability to understand the teachings of God and implement his commands

fatwa

The making of a rule in Islamic law