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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Elements of Music
1. Rhythm
2. Melody
3. Harmony
4. Tone Color
5. Form
Elements of Dance
1. Time
2. Space
3. Movement of the Body
4. Movement Quality
5. Form
- Long notes, short notes, and silence (rests) played above a steady pulse/beat
- A series of pitches that rise and fall, played with a specific rhythm
- The tune that you sing
- The logical progression of chords
- Accompanies the melody
Tone Color
- The combination of sounds and instruments that makes up music's timbre
The structural organization of:
- rhythm, melody, harmony, and tone color (for music)
- time, space, movement of the body, and movement quality (for dance)
- the underlying pulse in music
Meter (Time Signature)
- a group of beats
- grouping defined by the time signature
-terms meter and time sig. = almost interchangeable
- time signature tells us how many beats there are in a group and defines the nature of a single beat
Measure (Bar)
One unit of the meter (or time signature)
- music that has no perceivable beat
- musicians could be counting underneath to hold piece together, but listener can't hear a pulse or beat
- the speed at which the piece is played
Tempo Marking
- found in the upper left corner of the first page of a piece of music
- defined by a metronome marking which is usually in beats per minute written as: ( = 120)
Tempo Marking Paces
1. Allegro = fast
2. Adagio = very slow
3. Presto = very fast
4. Andante = slow walking tempo
5. Moderato = moderate tempo
- when accents occur in unexpected places in rhythmic music
Normal/Expected places for accents
- measure of 4 beats = on the 1st and 3rd beats
- measure of 3 beats = on the 1st beat
- inside a beat: beat divided into 4 parts = the 1st and 3rd sixteenth notes, beat divided into 3 parts = the 1st eighth note
- music where the tempo is flexible
- performer moves the beat slightly slower or faster for expressive purposes
Ritardando (Ritard, or Rit.)
- slow down the tempo, usually at the end of a phrase
Accelerando (Accel.)
- get faster, usually in a phrase or short section of music
Compound Time
- time signatures in which the beat is divided into 3 or 6 parts

6/8, 9/8, 12/8, 15/8, etc.
Figuring Out Compound Time
- the top number is divisible by three (only exception is if the top number is 3, then its simple)
- divide top number by 3 to figure out how many beats there are - ex: 6/8 time, 6 divided by 3 is 2, so there are 2 beats
- bottom number reflects the type of note: 1 = whole note, 2 = half note, 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc.
- one beat equals three of these notes - ex: in 6/8 time, there are 2 beats made of 3 eighth notes
Simple Time
- time signatures in which the beat is divided into 2 or 4 parts

2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, etc.
Figuring Out Simple Time
- top number is not divisible by 3 (exception is 3)
- top number tells how many beats per measure - ex: in 4/4 time, there are 4 beats per measure
- bottom number tells what kind of note gets the beat: 1 = whole note, 2 = half note, 4 = quarter note, etc.
- ex: in 4/4 time, a quarter note gets one beat
Mixed Meter
- when the time signature frequently changes in a piece of music
- principally, when there are changes of meter inside a phrase (not if it changes once or twice in the whole piece)
- when 2 time signatures are being played at the same time
- share a common pulse, but cross accents from 2 time signatures create interesting syncopations between them
Key Signature
- sharps or flats at the beginning of a line of music, right after the clef sign, indicates what key the piece is in
- two choices from this key signature: major key or its related minor key (ex: C uses no sharps or flats, and its related minor is A minor)
- you have to look at the piece of music to see whether its in the major or minor key
Tonal Music
- music that has a tonal center, which means it is played in a specific key and based on a scale
- in western music, we use mostly major and minor scales
- tonal music will always return to its tonal center (the bottom note of the scale)
Atonal Music
- music with no tonal center
- don't go back to the key center
- chords are called atonal harmonies, they don't abide by the typical rules of chord progression in tonal music
Scale (Mode)
- organization of pitches in half and whole steps that progress from a note to the same note an octave higher
- many scales across the world, can have any number of notes
- we use mostly major and minor scales that are 7 notes
- melody that can be sung in one breath
- has a beginning, climax, and resolution
- most important phrase in a piece of music
- central musical idea of the piece
- three or four most important notes in a theme
- you will hear it throughout the piece, gets stuck in your head and defines the piece musically
- progression of chords that accompanies the melody
- any three or more notes played simultaneously
- a three note chord where each note is separated by one unplayed note
Major vs. Minor
- these are the 2 types of scales in western music
- these scales form major and minor chords
- major: generally more optimistic in tone
- minor: darker in tone
- all the parts of the music other than the melody
- encompasses the chords, any patterns these chords are played in, the bass line, and counter melodies
Bass Line
- the bottom note in any music
- usually there's one instrument that plays it
- grounds the music, very important for this reason
- the volume of the music indicated by a certain symbol
Symbols for Dynamics
1. pp = pianissimo, very soft
2. p = piano, softly
3. mp = mezzo piano, medium soft
4. mf = mezzo forte, medium loud
5. f = forte, loud
6. ff = fortissimo, very loud
- sign at the beginning of every line of music
- tells the relative range of the music (Treble, Bass, Alto)
- the five lines that the notes are placed on
- the group of staves that are connected together
- (b) symbol that indicates to play a half step lower than the written note
- often the black key right below the note
- (#) symbol that indicates to play a half step higher than the written note
- often the black key right above the note