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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
atonality
total abandonment of tonality. (which is centered in a key) atonal music moves from one level of dissonance to another, without areas of relaxation

consonance

concodanant or harmonious combination of pitches that provides a sense of relaxations and stability in music

dissonance

combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable in need of resolution

ethnomusicology

comparative study of musics of the world, with a focus on the cultural context of music

expressionism

a style of visual art and literature in Germany and Austria in the early 20th century. the term is sometimes also applied to music, especially composers of the Second Viennese School ( Schoenberg, Berg, Webern)



gamelan

musical ensemble of Java or Bali, made up of songs, chimes, metallophones, and drums among other instruments

koto

Japanese plucked-string instrument with a long rectangular body, 13 strings, and moveable bridges or frets

leitmotif
a recurrent theme throughout a musical or literary composition, associated with a particular person, idea, or situation.
pipa

a Chinese lute with four silk strings; played as a solo and ensemble instrument
polyharmony

2 or more streams of harmony played against each other, common in the 20th century
polyrhythm

the simultaneous use of several rhythmic patters or meters, common in 20th century music and certain African musics.

raga

melodic used in music of India; prescribes pitches, patterns, ornamentation, and extramusical associations such as time of performance and emotional character
shamisen
literally means Japanase 3 string instrument.

sitar

long-necked chordophone of northern India, with movable frets and a rounded gourd body; used as a solo instrument and with tabla

source music
a film technique in which music comes from a logical source within the film and functions as part of the story.
synthesizer


electronic instrument that produces a wide variety of sounds by combining sound generation and sound modifiers in one package



tala
fixed time cycle or meter in Indian music built from under even groupings of beats
talking drum
an hourglass-shaped drum from West Africa, whose pitch can be regulated to mimic the tone and prosody of human speech. It has two drumheads connected by leather tension cords, which allow the player to modulate the pitch of the drum by squeezing the cords between his or her arm and body.

tone row

an arrangement of the 12 chromatic pitches that serves as the basis of a 12 tone piece

12 tone music

compositional procedure of the 20th century based on an ordering of all 12 chromatic pitches without a central pitch or tonic according to prescribed rules.

underscoring

a technique used in films in which the music comes from an unseen source.
basso continuo

Italian for continuous bass. also refers to a performance group with a chordal instrument and one bass melody instrument

binary form

two part form with each section normally repeated

cadenza
virtuosic solo passage in the manner of an improvisation performed near the end of an aria or movement of a concerto

chorale

congregational hymn of the German Lutheran church

doctrine of affections
was a theory in the aesthetics of painting, music, and theatre, widely used in the Baroque era, widely accepted by late Baroque theorists and composers, that embraced the proposition that music is capable of arousing a variety of specific emotions within the listener

dynamics

element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness or volume of a sound

idee fixe

fixed idea. term coined by Berloiz for a recurring musical idea that links different movements of a work

interval

the distance and relationship between 2 pitches

liberetto

text or script of an opera, oratorio, cantata, or musical

harpsichord

early Baroque keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers like the piano

meter

organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into a larger, regular pattern, notated as measures

monody

vocal style established in the Baroque era with solo singers and instrumental accompaniment

monophonic

single line texture or melody without accompaniment

motive

short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms melodic harmonic rhythmic unit

octave

interval between 2 eight notes diatonic pitches apart, the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower

organum

earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to the chant at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved freely

pitch

highness or lowness of a note, depending on the frequency

polyphonic

2 or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture as distinct as monophonic
program music

instrumental music endowed with literacy or pictorial associations, especially popular in the 19th century.

rubato

"borrowed time", common in Romantic music, in which the performer hesistates here or hurries forward there, imparting flexibility to the written note values
solo concerto


sonata

instrumental genre in several movements for soloist and or small ensemble

sonata-allegro form

the opening movement of the multimovement cycle, consisting of themes that are stated in the first section, developed in the second, and restated in the third.

string quartet

chamber music ensemble consisting of 2 violins viola and cello. Also a multimovement composition for this ensemble

strophic form

song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza of the poem

suite

multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally in the same key

tempo

the rate of speed or tempo of music

ternary form

3 part ABA form based on a statement

texture

the interweaving of melodic and harmonic elements in the musical fabric. horizontal and vertical

theme

melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a piece.

timbre

the quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another.

YOU GOT

THIS:)))
Leonard Berstein
Composer. Explored Jewish background in this Third Symphony. Rooted in tonality. West side story. New York City.
Aaron Copland

Well crafted and classically proportioned works. Great appeal. Ballet suites are quintessentially American in their portrayal of rural life and the Far west. Had an "American modernist" style. Appalachian Spring

Arnold Schoenberg

Expresionist painting. Advocated tonality (getting away with it) Austrian composer and painter. Leader of the second Viennese school. Jewish and eventually moved to the United States as the rise of Nazi Party
Igor Stravinsky
Russian Composer. Ballets. Stylistic diversity.

John Williams

American composer and conductor. Pianist. made some of the most popular film music. Star wars, NFL