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12 Cards in this Set

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What does the term muscle refer to?

Muscle is a general term for any tissue that contracts

What causes movement?

The contractile property of muscle tissue allows it to become thick and short in response to a nerve impulse, muscles then relax once that impulse is removed when contracting, the muscles do no simply shorten, but exert force as they become shorter.

What are some facts about muscles?

Muscles make up half the weight of the body




The size of your muscles is influenced by how much you use them




Individual elongated muscle cells can be up to 30 cm in length




About the age of 40, the number and diameter of muscle fibers begin to decrease and by age 80, up to 50% of the muscle mass may be lost

Skeletal Muscle: a) are they voluntary or involuntary?


b) what do they attach to?



c) what do they provide?




d) Some muscles attaches to bone without tendons. What do they attach with?




e) define : 1) Primary mover


2) Point of origin


3) Point of insertion


4) Synergistic


5) Antagonists


6) Diaphragm.

a) Skeletal muscles are voluntary (which means they are under conscious control)


b) They are attached to the skeleton


c) They provide the ability to perform external movements (such as running, lifting, scratching etc)


d) Without a tendon(s) muscles called aposiolsis




e) 1) Primary Mover: are the muscles that move either by themselves or in a muscle group


2) Point Of Origin: is the end of a muscle that is attached to the stationary bone


3) Point Of Insertion: Is the muscle end that is attached to the moving bone


4) Synergistic: are the muscles that can assist the point of insertion movement, such as some of the muscles in the hand and wrist (they assist the primary mover)


5) Antagonists: when the muscles cause movement in the opposite direction when they contract


6) Diaphragm: a dome shaped muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities and is responsible for bringing and controlling the air into our lungs.

Muscles are composed of muscle fibers. The fibers contain functional units called what?

Myofibrils

What 2 chemicals are required for muscles to contract and relax?

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and Calcium

What is rigor mortis and what causes it

Rigor Mortis is when a dead body shows signs of movement .




This is caused by stored calcium that remains in the muscles throughout the body and causes the muscle fibers to contract and stiffen the body

Explain how muscles get fuel

The body stores glycogen in the muscle, when needed the body converts glycogen to glucose which releases energy for the muscle to function; gets stored in liver and muscles to function

Why do higher demand muscles appear darker than low demand muscles?

Higher demanded muscles appear darker colour because they have a higher/richer blood supply that carries extra oxygen, do to being used more

Smooth Muscles: a) where is smooth muscles found in the body?


b) what are vasodilation and vasoconstricition?


c) what happens during an asthma attack?


d) explain what sphincters are and what they do?


e) is it voluntary or involuntary?


f) how much slower is the contraction of smooth muscle compared to skeletal?

a) Smooth muscles are found in all organs except the heart


b) Vasodilation: is the blood vessels getting larger in diameter


Vasoconstriction: is the blood vessels getting smaller in diameter


c) During an asthma attack, the smooth muscles constrict


d) Sphincters are smooth muscles found in the digestive system. They act as doorways to let materials in and out by contracting and relaxing


e) Smooth muscles are involuntary


f) Skeletal muscles once stimulated can contract 50 times faster than smooth muscles

Cardiac Muscles: a) where is it located, what does it do, and is it voluntary or involuntary?


b) where are cardiac muscle fibers like compared to other muscle types? why do they require so much blood


c) what is the purpose of intercalated discs?


d) can cardiac muscle regenerate?

a) Cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart, they're job is to aqueeze blood out of the chambers of the heart by contracting and it is an involuntary muscle




b) Cardiac muscles fibers are some what shorter than the others, because the heart must work continuously until you die, they require blood because they need to provide oxygen and nutrition to the body as well as getting rid of waste




c) Intercalated discs' purpose is when cardiac muscle fiber is connected to another resulting in one fiber contracting and the adjacent one contracts (like a domino effect)




d) Cardiac muscles can't regenerate after severe damage

Common muscular skeletal disorders




a)Myalgia


b) Fibromyalgia


c) Ataxia


d) Paralysis


e) Spasm or Cramp


f) Sprains or Strains


g) Shin Splints


h) Hernia


i) Tendinitis


j) Muscular Dystrophy

a) Myalgia: means pain or tenderness in a muscle


b) Fibromyalgia: one of the most common disorder in women under the age of 40. Symptom include aches, pains, and muscle stiffness with specific tender points through the body (is not well understood yet)


c) Ataxia: a condition in which the muscles are irregular in their actions or there is a lack of coordination


d) Paralysis: is the partial or total loss of the ability of voluntary muscles to move


e) Spasm or Cramp: a muscle that contracts involuntary suddenly and violently for a prolonged period of time


f) Sprains or Strains: Sprains are tears or breaks in ligaments


Strains are tears or injury to tendons or muscle


g) Shin Splints: a common running-related inflammatory condition of the extensor muscles and surrounding tissue of the lower leg


h) Hernia: occurs when there is a tear in the muscle wall an organ of the body protrudes through that opening


i) Tendinitis: is a condition in which tendons become damaged




j) Muscular Dystrophy: is inherited in which muscle fibers degenerate and there is progressive muscular weakness