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408 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A physician treats disorders of cardiac muscles
physician specializes in the misalignment of spine
degree of Chiropractor
physician treats paralysis and similar muscular disorders loss of function
physician diagnosis treatment bones joints and muscles
Orthopedic Surgeon
study of making and fitting of orthopedic appliances
physician manipulates the positions of bones
Osteopathic physician
degree of Osteopathic physician
physician specializes in didagnosis and treatment of foot
degrees of podiatrist
DPM Doctor of Podiatric Medicine DP Coctor of Podiatry
physician specializes in diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases
general term for variety of acute and chronic conditions inflammation and deterioration of connective tissues
physician treats sports related injuries of bones, joints and muscles
Sports Medicine
how many muscles are there?
more than 650
how much do muscles and tendons weigh?
more than half of the person's weight
what are the muscles connected to the bone with
what do tendons do
muscles pull on bones
bones are fastened to other bones by fibrous straps called
ligaments wrap around what
what is flexible rubbery substance that supports bones and protects them where they rub
what forms the musculoskeletal system
bones muscles tendons and ligaments
name the muscles
skeletal smooth and cardiac
where are skeletal muscles?
attached to bone in lgs arms abdomen chest neck and face
skeletal muscles are?
why are they called stiated
made up fibers that have horizontal stripes
what do the skeletal muscles do?
hod the skeleton together give body shape and help it with everyday movements
what do skeletal muscles do?
contract shorten or tighten quickly and powerfully
what are skeletal muscles known as?
voluntary muscles
describe smooth muscles
look smooth we can't consciously control they are controlled by the nervous system automatically
where are smooth muscles
walls of stomach and intestines help break up food
where else is smooth muscle?
in walls of blood vessels
what does it do there?
squeezses blood through vessels and helps maintain blood pressure
describe the contraction
take longer to contract than skeletal muscles but can stay contracted for a long time don't tire easily
what comprises the largest single organ of the body
skeletal muscle
how much of the body is made up of skeletal muscle
how do muscles work
in pairs
muscles arise on one bone then what
atach to another bonew cross a joint
when one muscle contracts the opposite what?
relaxes which allows a joint to bend
skeletal muscles have an abundant what?
blood vessels and nerves directly related to primary function of contraction
skeletal muscles are under control of ?
peripheral portion of central nervous system voluntary control conscious
where is cardiac muscle found?
in heart
what are composed of muscle fibers
ventriclers and atria
contractions that force blood out of heart produces ?
joints are classified how
by how much the bones they connect can move against one another
which joints don't move
immovable or fibrous joints
what is between edges of plates in skull?
fibrous joints fibrous tissue
where else are fibrous joints?
hold teeth in jawbone
dors/o dorsal
my/o myalgia
troph/o dystrophy
two double
bi- biceps
what are ligaments?
strong connective tissues connect bone to bone form joints
why are ligaments important in joint stability?
hold bones in joint together
describe ligaments
more elastic fibers than tendons more stretchy
what is a fluid filled sac what does it do
bursa help cushion joint found between bones ligaments
what is a bursa filled with?
synovial fluid
another name for joint
what is a joint
where two bones come together
how many joints are there?
over 100
most joints are movable which aren't
sutures between cranial bones
what are movable joints called
synovial joints
what are they characterized by
presence of a closed space or cavity
what is it called between bones
synovial cavity
what is a joint lubricating substance
synovial fluid
where is synovial fluid produced
by the membranes
what do knee joints contain
discs of cartilage
another name for these discs of cartilage
what do menisci act as
swabs to spread synovial fluid into joint help to stabilize joint
what usually tears in contact sports?
menisci knee cartilages
singular form of menisci
some synovial movable joints
ball and socket
ball and socket
shoulder and hip
hands fingers feet toes
thumb only
vetebral column
elbow and knee
wrist and ankle
compound joint between 1st and 2nd vertabrae atlas and axis bones
atlantoaxial joint
articulation between sternum and manubrium
manubriosternal joint
stretches and increases tension on the vocal ligaments between cricoid cartilage and thyroid cartilage
cricothyroid joint
located between sternum and ribs
sternocostal joints
The joint that opens and closes your mouth
temporomandibular joint TMJ
between lenticular process and head of stapes ear cartilaginous young bony adults
incudostapedial joint
saddle shaped in ear between anvil and stirrup
joint occurs between facets of interior and superior articular processes of adjacent vertebra
zygapophyseal joint
what do the cranial sutures do?
skull makde of five bones held togethr by fibrous material sutures remain open while growing to give brain room to grow in all directions
what happens if one or more closes or fuses before the brain has finished growing?
craniosynostosis occurs (synostosis cranial stenosis)
what happens to the head if craniosynostosis occurs
brain will grow where there is no pressure and result ina misshapen head or face
suture on top of head extending from soft spot to back of head
sagittal suture
how does the brain grow
forced to grow forwanrd and bakward
what is the condition known as when the sagittal suture stops growing
which suture is on the side of head from soft spot to in front of ear
premature closure leads to what condition
anterior plagiocephaly
what will the head look like with anterior plagiocephaly
forehead to flatten on affected side elevation of eye socket deviated nose and slanted skull
what is elevatioon of eye socket known as
vertical dystopia
which suture is located between soft spot and root of nose
metopic suture
what is early closure of suture called
what does trygonocephaly look like?
pointed foreheads midline ridge triangularly shaped skull and eyes too close together
when eyes are too close together what is it called?
least common premature closing leads to flattening of back of head protrusion of mastoid bone lowering of ear skull tilt sideways
what is the condition called for lambdoidal premature closing
posterior plagiocephalus
ligament superior to inferior along surfasesa of vertebral
bodies directly posterior to thoracic and abdominal viscera
anterior longitudinal ligament
connects pinous processes of two adjacent vertabra a syndesmosis
interspinous ligament
elastic fibers joins laminae of adjacent vertebrae yellow paired penetrated for spinal taps
ligamenta flava
extends posteriorly from base of skull to 7th cervical vertebraprovides muscle attachments to cervical spoinous processes
nuchal ligament
not penetrated by spinal tap broader at intrvertebral disks and narrow at vertebral bodies scalloped edge
posterior longitudinal ligament
begins at c7 vertebrae and ends at midsacral ssegmental olevel muscle attachment site connects tips of spinous processes thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
supraspinous ligament
encircles head of radius provides restraint against distal dislocation of radius
annular ligament
connects coracoid process to acromion of scapula support for head of humerus
coracoacromial ligaments
2 parts connects uper surface of coracoid process to under surfac of clavicle
coracoclavicular ligament
what are the names of the 2 parts?
posteromedialpart conoid ligament and trapezoid ligament
attaches to clavicle to the first rib strong sternoclavicular joint that seldom dislocates
costoclavicular ligament
connects the humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament inferior
connects the humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament middle
humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament superior
connect carpal bones prevent excessive movement of snoviasl polane joints
intercarpal ligaments dorsal
intercapal ligaments palmar
cartilage caps medial end of rib
costal cartilage
connect costal cartilages of ribs 1-7 with sternum
radiate sternocostal ligaments
connects anterior superior iliac spine with pubic tubercle Poupart's ligament
inguinal ligament
connects thepubic tubercle with pecten of pubis
lacunar ligament
thickening of fascia on the pecten of pubis cooper's ligamenet in breast too
pectineal ligament
superior to inferior suracesa of vetebral bodies
anterior longitudinal ligament
attached to spenoid bone to mandibular foramen
sphenomandibular ligament
from styloid process of temporal bone to ramus of mandible
stylomandibular ligament
broad and thin membranous bands from front and back of sternal ends of cartilages of true ribs to sternum
radiate sternocostal ligaments
the gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the clavicle and the inner margin of the acromion process of scapula
acromioclavicular joint
between the distal end of radius and proximal row of carpal bones
wrist joint radiocarpal joint
ginglymoid joint ginglymus hinge joint
interphalangeal joint between phalanges of fingers or toes
clavicle connects to the sternum in the middle of chest at top
sterno clavicular joint
joint cconnecting arm with the torso shoulder rotator cuff
glenohumeral joint
where the radius and ulna connects
radioulna joint
cubital joint compound hinge joint between humerus and bones of forearm
radio carpal joint
between coracoid process and clavicle
coracoclavicular joint
synovial joint between poximal and distal rows of carpal bones
midcarpal joint
connects trapezium with metacarpal of thumb flexion/extensin fingers
carpometacarpal joint
connects metacarpal head to proximal phalanx
metacapophalangeal joints
Name some ligaments upper region
radiate sternocostal
anterior logitudinal
some ligaments thoracic region
glenohumoral superior inferior middle
encircles radius holds radius and ulna- ligament
ligament reinforces capsule of sternoclavicular joint
interclavicular ligament
ligament that connects coracoid process to the acromion of the scapula
coracoacromial ligament
fibrous membrane that connects the interosseous borders on the shafts of the radius and the ulna
interosseous membrane forearm
ligament that connects the upper surface of the coracoid process to the under surface of the clavicle
coracoclavicular ligament
ligament spanning the lateral side of the elbow joint
radial collateral ligament, elbow or wrist
ligament that attaches the clavicle to the first rib
costoclavicular ligament
ligament that reinforces the capsule of the sternoclavicular joint
sternoclavicular ligament
ligament that connects the metacarpophalangeal joints 2-5 on their palmar surface
transverse metacarpal ligament, deep
ligamnt that spans the suprascapular notch of the scapula
transverse scapular ligament, superior
ligament that reinforces articular casule on medial side of wrist
ulnar collateral ligament, wrist
ligament connects the humerus to scapula
glenohumeral ligament, inferior middle superior
articulation between distal tibia medial malleolus
ankle joint
articulation between head of metatarsal and base of phalanx
metatarsophalangeal joint Bunion
articultion between patella and femur
articulation between os coxae and head of femur
hip joint
articulations betweendistal row of tarsal bones and and proximal ends of metatarsal bones
tarsometatarsal joints
articuolation between femoral condyles and tibial condyles
knee joint
iliac spine to femoral
iliofemoral joint
articulation beween ala of sacurm and auricular surface of ilium
sacroiliac joint
articulations between proximal and middle phalanges
interphalangeal joints
articulations bewtween distal row of tarsal bones and proximal ends of metatarsal bones
glding tarsometatarsal joints
fibrocartilage rim around the acetabulum
acebabular labrum
ligament connects plantar surface of clacaneus cuboid and bases of 3 metatarsal bones
long plantar
arch passes from calcaneus to talus to navicular to cueiforms to metatarsal
longitudinal arch of foot
ligament connects calcaneus with cuboid on thir plantar surfaces
plantar calcaneocuboid ligament
ligament connecting posterior aspect of intercondylar eminence with lateral of medial femoral condyle
anterior cruciate
ligament of knee joint connecting the medial epicondyle of femur with medial condyle of tibia
tibial collateral
ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with sustentaculum tali
tibiocalcaneal ligament
part of deltoid ligment connecting medial malleolus of tibia with the navicular reinforces ankle joint
circularly oriented ligamentous fibers reinforce capsule of hip joint hod head of femur in acetabulum
zona orbicularis
reinforces ankle joint ligament connects lateral malleolus of fibula with talus
anterior talofibular ligament
ligament connects distal ends of tibia and fibula anteriorly
anterior tibiofibular
part of deltid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with talus
anterior tibiotalar ligament
reinforces ankle joint ligament connects lateral malleolus of fiula with calcaneus
calcaneofibular ligament
reinforces ankle joint shape of greek letter delta 4 parts connecting malleolus of tibia talus navicular and calcaneus
deltoid ligament
collateral ligament of knee connects lateral epicondyle of femur with head of fibula
fibular collateral ligament
like an inverted Y connects anterior inferior iliac spine to anterior capsule of hip joint known as libament of Bigelow
iliofemoral ligament
connects articular capsule of hip joint ischium to posterior femoral neck
ischiofemoral ligament
known as spring ligament complex set of intertarsal gliding synovial joints supports longitudinal arch of foot
calcaneonavicular ligament
connecting posterior aspecto of intercondylar eminence with lateral surface of medial femoral cndyle
posterior cruciate ligament
ligament connects lateral malleolus of fibula with talus reinforces ankle
posterior talofibular ligament
connects distal end s of tibia and fibula posteriorly
posterior tibiofibular ligament
part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with talus reinforces ankle
posterior tibiotalar ligament
connects pubic portion of rim of bony acetabulum to femoral neck
pubofemoral ligament
reinforces the medial surface of articular capsule of knee attached to medial meniscus
tibial collateral ligament
part of deltoid ligament connecting medial malleolus of tibia with sustentaculum tali reinforces ankle joint
tibiocalcaneal ligament
ligament spans acetabular notch near the rim of acetaulum
acetabular ligament
bursa between patellar ligament and tibia reduces friction
infrapatellar bursa deep
subcutaneous bursa overlying the patellar ligament
infrapatellar bursa superficial
intra-articular disc within the knee joint located between lateral femoral condyle an d tibial condyle
lateral meniscus
fibrocartilage intra-articular disc within the knee joint
medial meniscus
subcutaneous busa overlying the patella synovial membrane inflammation housemaid's knee prepatellar bursitis
prepatellar bursa
superior extension of synovial memebrane of knee joint reduces friction; between quadriceps femoris tendon and femur
suprapatellar bursa
muscle type associated with skeletal movement
skeletal muscle
comprises the largest single organ of the body
skeletal muscle
40% of body made of
skeletal muscle
How many different muscles are there?
over 650
How do skeletal muscles work?
in pairs to produce movement
Describe how muscles are connected to body
muscles arise on one bone and attach to another bone
what must they cross
a joint
when one muscle contracts what happens
its opposite relaxes,which allows a joint to bend
skeletal muscles have an abundant suply of what
blood vessels and nerves
what is the primary function of skeletal muscle
skeletal muscles are under the control of what
peripheral portion of the central nervous system voluntary control
gluteus maximus
gluteus minumus
adductor longus
adductor brevis
rhomboid quadrangular
neck area jugular
spinalis thoracis
spine and thorax
rotary cuff location these 3
rectus abdominis
superior oblique
transverse abdominus
crosswise direction of muscle fibers these 3
What are Action muscles
abductor adductor extensor flexor
number of origins
biceps 2
triceps 3
ligaments connect what
bone to bone
tendons are what
tissues that connect muscle to bone
Do tendons have elasticity?
what areflattened or ribbon-shaped tendons
describe aponeuroses
occur in sheets, are pearly white, glistening and similar to tendons
describe tendons and aponeuroses
connected on one side with muscles and movable structures on the other side
what movable structures
bones and cartilage
where do tendons grow out of?
How are tendons named?
by thier sponsoring muscle
primary function of skeletal muscles
skeletal mucsle is under ____ control
muscles must cross
a joint
decreases the angle of a joint as in bending hinge joints
opposite of flexion movement increases thew angle of joint
movement away from midline of body
(abducted run away!)
movement toward bidline of body
adduction (add with your fingers bring toward body)
movement of bone around a longitudinal axis
example of rotation
ball and socket joint
moving the limb forms a cone or circle
example of circumduction
arms legs and fingers
rotating palm downward
rotating palm upward
turning sole of foot inward
turning sole of foot outward
pointing foot upward
pointing the foot downward
plantar flexion
when muscles contract across joints what movements are initated
voluntary movements
partially movable joints
another name for freely movable joints
synovial joints
how do synovial joints move
in many directions hips shoulders elbows knees wrists ankles
involuntary muscdles are controlled by whatq
deep within the brain and uper part of spinal cord
another name for upper part of spinal cord
brain stem
voluntary muscles are regulated by what
cerebral motor cortex above ear and cerebellum behind ear
motor cortex on right side of brain controls muscles where
on left side of body and vice versa
example of flexor
example of extensors
what are the 3 types of moveable joints
ball-and-socket hinge pivot
describe hinge joints
allow movement in one direction

knees and elbows
describe pivot joints
rotating motion head side to side
describe ball-and-socket
forward backward rotating moves in all directions hips and shoulders
joint inflammation pain and loss of movement
cartilage in joints loses some of its ability to strectch and wears away grate against each other
osteoarthiritis all ages
body's immune system attacks cartilage in joints stiff painful deformed
rheumatoid arthritis
joint pain is always caused by arthritis
pain in one or more joints
degeneration of cartilagew a joint and growth of bone spurs over 45 years old
inflammation of bursa
fluid filled sacs cushion and pad bony prominences allow muscles and tendons to movwe freely over bone
inherited disease affects voluntary muscles weaken and deteriorate
Muscular Dystrophy
common form in childhood absnoral gene carried on the X chromosome affects almost only boys
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
over-exercising a muscle
tendonitis tendinitis
how do you relieve tendonitis
resting muscles
what is a lioning of protective sheath covers tendons
inflammation of the tendon and sheath
cause of teosynovitis
unknown, injuryk overuse strain or infection
where does tenosynovitis occur
mainly wrists hands and shoulder but any tendon site
what is it called when wrist is affected
carpal tunnel syndrome
how can you get carpal tunnel syndrome
repettitve motions likae typing
describe CTS
pressure exerted on median nerve at point where it passes through writst
what does the median nerve do
supplies sensation to the thumbo-side of palm thumb index finger middle finger and thumb-side of ring finger and movement to part of hand
whearew dodes the nerve aenter
between wrist bones carpal bonesand membrane holds bones together transverswe carpal ligament
what is the space called
carpal tunnel
swelling causes what
compression of nerve entrapment of naerve
torn achilles tendon
torn tendon connects calf muscles to heel
sudden movement can tear fibers inside musclwe
torn muscle
jerky movements
decrease in size and wasting of muscle tissue
muscle atrophy
another name for muscle aches
how do you get myalgia
overuse sometimes infecitous disease autoimnmnune disease parasitosis
group of disorders characterized byprogressive muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue inherited
muscular dystrophy
name some
Becker's muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy limb-girdle musclular dystriophy Emeryo-Dreifuss MD myotonic dystrophy myotonia congenita
neuromuscular disorder characteriszed by variable weakness of voluntary muscles improves with rest and worsens with activity caused by abnormal immune response
myasthenia gravis
nerve impulse to initiate or sustain movement does not reach muscle cwells
myastenia gravis
immune cells target and attack body's own cells autoimmunae response
myasthenia gravis
antibodies attach to affected areas preventing muscle cwells from receiving chemical messages neurotransmitters from nerve cell
myasthenia gravis
inflammation or swelling of voluntary muscles caused by injury or infection
myositis myitis
rheumatic syndrome pain in fibrous tissues muscles tendons and other connective tissues painful muscles without weakness
inflammation soreness or pain on outside lateral side of upper arm near elbow partial tear of tendon fibers caused by repetitively twisting wrist or forearm
tennis ellbow lateral epicondylitis
facial pain in joints of lower jaw headaches popping sounds in jaw congenital arthritis fractures dislocations jaw or tooth grinding
TMJ temporomandibular joint syndrome
twisting or bending of joint into a position it was not designed to move
sprain strain
most commonly sprained joint
symptoms of sprain
pain around joint swelling and bruising
juvilile rhuematoid arthritis
what is hip joint replacement
replace all or part of hip joint with an artificial device to restore joint movement
loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease injury or surgical procedure
rheaumatoid arthritis of spine chronic involving ligaments and tendons causes spine to fuse
ankylosing spondylitis
pain in joint
any disease that affects joints
stiffness of joints
inflammatory condition affecting joints
heareditary disorder of cartilage and bone formation
inflammation of bursa
progressive disease with a degenerative arthritis in combination with a decreased pain perception or position sense
Charcot's joint neurogenic arthropathy neuropathic osteoarthropathy
slow growing benign tumor drived from cartilage cells
softening of cartilage tissue
softening of the articular cdartilaginous surface of kneecap
chondromalacia patella
malignant tumor of cartilage
big toe
bunion abvnormal enlargement of joint at base of great toe
hallux valgus
partial displacement of a bone from its joint
bone is displaced from its proper position
joint dislocation
formation of uric acid crystals in joint as the result of excess uric acid in the blood arthritis
gouty arthritis
painful progressive arthritis characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone a articular surfaces
degenerativae joint disease
joint disease that may include intermittent attacks of arthritis
serious medical emergency that occurs when bacterial invasion of a joint causes inflammation and infecion
septic arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis names
ankylosing spondylitis juvenile rheumatoid arthrits
chronic autoimmune disorder affects synovial membranes inflamed painful joints deformities
rheumatoid arthritis
fusion of vertebral bodies causing stiffening of spine
ankylosing spon dylitis
RA affects children
juvenile rheumatoid arthrits
excision of joint
surgical removal of bursa
use of bone graft to fuse joint surfaces
surgical removal of bursa
surgical repair of cartilagew
replaces diseased hip joint with a prosthesis
hip joint replacement
surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
inflammation of tendons of shoulder ball and socket joint humerus joins scapula shoulder blade rotator cuff holds head of humerus ionto scapula
rotator cuff tendinitis
disease of palmar fascia results in thickening and contracture which results in loss of function of fingers 4th and 5th diogits
Dupuytren's contracture
connective tissue disease inflammation and degeneration of muscles
muscular stiffness occurs at death
rigor mortis
contraciton of sternocleidomastoid muscle causes permanent rotation of head
inflammation of voluntary skeletal muscles
myositis ossificans
ionvoluntary slow and twisting movements
lack of muscle tone or strength
disorder of brain shaking difficulty walking movement
Parkoinson's disease
muscle twitches
benign tumor of smooth muscle
surgical reconstruction or replacement of joint
total knee replacement
partial knee replacement
total hip replacement
replacement of a worn or failed implant
revision surgery
viewing or performing surgery on a joint
arthroscopy shoulder knee ankle elbow wrist
where is synovial foluid
joints bursae tendon sheaths
series of tests performed on joint fluid to help diagnose and treat abnormalities
synovial fluid analysis
How do they obtain a synoviaol fluid sample
needle is linserted into the knee between the joint space
rest ice compression elevation for sprains
pressure should not be put on a sprained joint until
one to sevewral weeks
removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle
muscle biopsy
surgery to release compressed median nerve cutting transverse carpal ligament
carpal tunnel release
test which measures strength of muscle cdontraction after electrical stimulation
EMG electromyography
blood test for presence of antibodies systemic luopus erythemoatosus
ANA antinuclear antibody test
sed rate blood test measures settling of blood in test tube for ionflammatory conditions ie rheumatoid arthritis
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
blood test measures antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatoid factor
blood test measures amount of calcium in blood
serum calcium
blood test measures CPK found in muscular disorders or abnormal iuscular conditions
CPK seum creatine phosphokinase
bolld test measuring amount of phosphorus in blood
serum phosphorus
blood test measuring amount of uric acid in blood found in gouty arthritis
uric acid test
inflammation of a joint
abnormal swelling of toe joint
inflammation of a bursa fluid filled sac prevents friction within jointw
conditrion pain and burning in fingers and hand
carpal tunnel syndrom
dense connective tissue supports and shapes auditory canal intervertebral disks
pain originating in cartilage
inflammation of cartilage
softening of cartilage
jerky stiff movements
cogwheel rigidity
displacement of bone from joint
soft spots in newborn skull
form of acute arthritis
bacterioal disease transmitted by deer ticks muscle/joint pain
Lyme disease
joint piermits great freedom and range of movement
heart muscle
cardiac muscle
rubbery material cushions and protects bones
hard tissue outer layers of bone
compact bonew
muscle straightens joint or extends limb
muscle brings two body parts closer together
joint movement in one direction knee
hinge joint
joint does not permit movement skull
immovable joint fibrous joint
thick fibrous strap joins one bone to another
body tissues made of specialiszed muscle cells heart and other internal organs
body system bones joints sligaments muscles and tendons
musculoskeletal system
joint moves a little like spinal column
partially movable joint cartilaginous joint
joint rotating motion
pivot joint
muscles work with bones of skeleton
skeletal muscles voluntary muscles
ionvoluntary muscles found in walls of intestines and blood vessels
smooth muscles
cells in bone marrow produce blood cells
stem cells
fluid found in synovial joint lubricates and protects joint
synovial fluid
strong cord composed of fibers of collagen attaches muscle to bone
tiny pieces of bonew found in cancellous bone