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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

describe the micro anatomy of a skeletal muscle

what are the 3 types of filament muscle?

actin (thin) myosin (thick) and titin

a myosin molecule consists of a two parts; the head and the tail, how many heads does a myosin molecule have? and what are the letters associated with the head and tail?

-myosin has 2 heads

-head --> S1

-tail --> S2

what is the arrangement in which 2 myosin molecules wrap around each other known as?

helical arrangement

what energy compound is found in myosin heads that is released when myosin and actin join together?

ADP + inorganic phosphate

name the 3 (relevant) structures found in an actin molecule

troponin complex - 3 proteins (C,T&I) which hold the tropomyosin in place


G actin

What is the role of troponin C?

this is the part Where Calcium binds to the troponin

it makes a conformational change

What is the role of troponin T?

-the troponin C makes a conformational change to the troponin (through the action of Calcium)

-this conformational change pulls on troponin t and transduces the effect on calcium by pulling on troponin I

What is the role of troponin I?

troponin I is the inhibitory troponin - it is attached to tropomyosin

so when troponin I is pulled away, so is tropomyosin

when actin and myosin join, what happens to the ATP which is associated with shortening of muscle

the ATP is metabolised/hydrolysed

what is the role of ATP in the myosin heads?

detaches myosin heads and energizes them for another contaction

define power stroke in muscle contraction

-The power stroke occurs at the release of phosphate from the myosin molecule after the ATP hydrolysis while myosin is tightly bound to actin.

-The effect of this release is a conformational change in the molecule that pulls against the actin. The release of the ADP molecule and binding of a new ATP molecule will release myosin from actin.

-ATP hydrolysis within the myosin will cause it to bind to actin again to repeat the cycle. The combined effect of the myriad power strokes causes the muscle to contract.

what is the molecule which is capable of storing ATP energy, and in what form?

creatine in the form of creatine phosphate

creatine in the form of creatine phosphate

define muscle atrophy

the weakening and shrinking of a muscle

what can cause muscle atrophy?


-loss of neural stimulation

define muscle hypertrophy

enlargement of muscle through

-enlargement of cells within muscle

-more capillaries

-more mitochondria

what is causes muscle hypertrophy

-strenuous exercise

-steroid hormones

define isometric contraction

-contraction in which there is no movement

-muscle length does not change even tho the muscle is contracted

when is isometric contraction used




define isotonic contraction

-produces movement

-muscle length changes when the muscle is contracted

when is isotonic contraction used?


-in concentric/eccentric movements (the different types of isotonic movements)