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47 Cards in this Set

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1) an accompanied solo song. 2) The musical texture of solo singing accompanied by one or more instruments.


strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition, intended to be sung by the congregation.

Ritornello (14th Century)

1) in a 14th c. madrigal, the closing section, in a different meter from the preceding verses.

Ritornello (16th/17th Century)

2) In 16th and 17 c. vocal music, instrumental introduction or interlude between sung stanzas.

Ritornello (Aria context)

3) In an aria or similar piece, an instrumental passage that recurs several times, like a refrain. Typically it is played at the beginning as interludes and again at the end, and it states the main theme.

Ritornello (Concerto context)

4) In a fast movement of a concerto, the recurring thematic material played at the beginning by the full orchestra and repeated usually in varied form, throughout the movement and at the end.


A small ensemble of solo instruments.


in a concerto or conertino grosso, designates the full orchestra, also called Tutti

Overture (Opera context)

a orchestra piece introducing an opera or other long work.

Overture (Orchestral work)

Independent orchestral work in one movement, usually descriptive.

Recitative (secco and accompanied)

a passage or section in an opera, oratorio, cantata or other vocal work in recitative style. (a type of vocal singing that approaches speech and follows the natural rhythms of the text)

Florentine camerata

Treble/bass polarity; Academy in Florence devoted to discussions of Greek Music, believed ancient music was monadic.

Episode (Fugue)

in a fugue, a passage of counterpoint between statements of the subject.


a subsidiary passage between presentations of the main thematic material

Sonata da camera (chamber sonata)

baroque sonata usually a suite of stylized dances, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo

Sonata da chiesa (church sonata)

baroque instrumental work intended for performance in church; usually in 4 movements- slow-fast-slow-fast- and scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo


combined narrative, dialogue and commentary, religious dramatic music. Used recitatives, arias, duets and instrumental preludes and ritornellos. Action was described, not played out. Involved a narrator and a chorus. ESSENTIALLY, AN UNSTAGED OPERA.


piece for keyboard instrument or lute resembling an improvisation that may include imitative sections of may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue.


highly embellished passage, often improvised, at an important cadence, usually occurring just before the end of a piece or section.

Seconda prattica

Monteverdi's term for a practice of coutnerpoint and composition that allows the rules of 16th c. counterpoint to be broken in order to express the feelings of a text. Also called STILE MODERNO.

Ground bass/basso ostinato

a pattern in the bass that repeats while the melody above it changes

Cantata (17th and 18th century)

a vocal chamber work with continuo, usually for solo voice, consisting of several sections of movements that include recitatives and arias and setting a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text.

Cantata (Lutheran context)

form of lUtheran church music in the 18th c. combining poetic texts with texts drawn from chorales or the Bible, and including recitatives, arias, chorale settings, and usually one or more choruses.

Cantata (Later years)

A work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra in several movements but smaller than an oratorio

Basso continuo

System of notation and performance practice used in the baroque period, in which an instrumental bass line is written out and one more more players of keyboard, lute, or other instruments fill in the harmony with appropriate chords or improvised melodic lines. (This term also refers to the bass line itself)

Le Nuove Musiche

a book of numerous songs for solo voice with continuo written by Caccini. Published in 1602

Artusi/Monteverdi controversy

the use of dissonance, Artusi attacks Monteverdi, especially madrigal CRUDA AMARILLI in print

Artusi/Monteverdi controversy (retort)

"Text is the mistress of the music"

1. Violations in service of textual expression

2. More important than compositional norms

3. New style --> seconda practtica

Notes inégales

17th century convention of performing French music in which passages notated in short, even durations, such as succession of eighth notes, are performed by alternating longer notes on the beat with shorter off beats to produce a lilting rhythm.

Tragédie lyrique

French 17th and 18th century form of opera, pioneered by Jean-Baptiste Lully, that combined the French classic drama and ballet traditions with music, dances, and spectacles.

Cori spezzati (split choir)

A common writing style of Giovanni Gabrieli.

Concerto solo

solo instrument --> or two instruments of the same tone color VS. ripieno or tutti group, alternation of sections for ensemble and soloist

Concerto grosso

instrumental work that exploits the contrast in sonority between a small ensemble of solo instruments (concertino), usually the same forces that appeared in the trio sonata, and a large ensemble (ripieno or concerto grosso)

Doctrine of the affections

viewpoint on emotional expression of text, composers should be "musical orators", job of performers is to "stir the affections"

Suite (and standard movements)

a set of pieces that are linked together into a single work. During the baroque period, a suite usually referred to a set of stylized dance pieces.

Remember order of pieces with "All Cows Smell Gross"

Allemande (suite)

Germanic origin, duple meter with short upbeat, moderate tempo, opening gesture often imitated in another voice, binary form

Courante (suite)

triple meter, 3/2 and/or 6/4, moderate tempo but can be quite fast of quite slow, free counterpoint, melodic interest often shifts from upper to lower voices

Sarabanda (suite)

Spanish, by way of Central America, triple meter with accent on 2nd beat, dotted quarter, eighth figure common, refined but not necessarily slow, model for slow movement of classical sonata

Gigue (suite)

probably English origin, 3/2 or 6/4 meter accents on beats 1 & 4, fugal and imitative, dotted rhythms, wide intervals, faster tempo wise.


Spanish genre of musical theater, light, mythological play in a pastoral setting that alternates between sung and spoken dialogue and various types of ensemble and solo song.

Grand concerto

piece that combines soloist, choir, vocal, and instrumental.

Ballet de cour (court ballet)

performed in the 16th and 17th century at court. Jean-Baptiste Lully was considered the most important composer of them

Récitatif simple

simple recitative, metrically fluid

Figured bass

a form of basso continuo in which the bass line is supplied with numbers or flat or sharp signs to indicate the appropriate chords to be played.

Stile brisé

broken, arpeggiated texture in instrumental music

Chorale prelude

relatively short setting for organ of a chorale, melody, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service.


composition or section of acomposition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.