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39 Cards in this Set

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L: Schubert
1) Lied: Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel

2) String Quintet in C Major
L: Robert Schumann
In the Beautiful Month of May
L:Chopin
Mazurka in Bb Major
L: Liszt
Three Concert Etudes, No. 3: Un sospiro
L: Berlioz
Symphonie Fantastique (Mvt V: Dance of the Witches' Sabbath)
L: Mendelssohn
Violin Concerto in E minor, Mvt III
L: Clara Schumann
Piano Trio in G minor (Mvt III)
style features/characteristics of the Romantic period
1) melody/harmony = rich, intense
2) points of tension are greater
3) melodies are tuneful and beautiful
4) harmony = melody
5) invention of saxophone and tuba
6) invention of the valve for brass
7) orchestra is significantly larger
8) greater use of the keyboard (all 88 keys)
9) expanded dynamics
10) tempo rubato
11) use of literary program
12) thematic unity
art song
poem set to music for voice and piano (lied/er)

can be strophic (same melody for each stanza) or through-composed (melody changes all the way through, no matter the length of text)
song cycles
a collection of lieder; collected by author, or by theme

ie: Die Winterreise (Schubert)
piano music
nocturne (serenade)
impromptu
ballade
prelude
waltz
scherzo
mazurka
polonaise
etude
Frederic Chopin
French/Polish; 9-yr liaison w/George Sand; had terrible stage fright
Nicolo Paganini
influential violinist; introduced multiple stops, LH pizz, harmonics
Robert Schumann
great lieder composer (naga Schubert); great piano composer (naga Chopin); crazypants, died in sanatorium

started "New Journal for Music" - all music was good - signed Eusebius (dreamer) or Florestan (intense)

- piano cycle "Carnival)
Clara Schumann
R's wife; one of first important women composers; one of 1st women composers to write under own name
Franz Liszt
revolutionized piano performances: highly theatrical; changed the direction piano faced so ppl could see his profile, but also resulted in the piano being much louder

the first rock star

invented the tone poem

"Transcendental Etudes"

on the "freedom" side of structure vs freedom
thematic transformation
compositional technique where the thematic material is transformed to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a programmatic subject

(employed by Berlioz in SF; mastered by Liszt)
2 compositional schools of thought
structure (Brahms) vs freedom (Liszt)
types of programmatic music
1) program symphony
2) incidental music
3) concert overture
4) symphonic (tone) poem
program symphony
a symphony that follows a program

ie Symphonie Fantastique
I) Dreams and Passions
II) At a Ball
III) In the Country
IV) March to the Scaffold
V) Dream of a Witches' Sabbath
incidental music
Music written for an existing dramatic work.

ie Mendelssohn's "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
concert overture
A 1-movement work for orchestra that follows a storyline and has some kind of structure.

ie Tchaikovsky's "Romeo and Juliet" (demonstrates 3 major chars of Romanticism)
symphonic poem
a 1 movement work for orchestra that is longer than a concert overture and does not have a formal structure

invented by Liszt, perfected by Strauss
piano cycle
collection of short piano pieces with a prevailing theme

ie Schumann's "Carnival"
The Erlking
(Schubert)

4 parts sung by one voice: narrator, father, son, elf king

galloping horses in the piano line

elf king is represented in a major key (crazyness)
idee fixe
recurring theme that represents something - ie the lover's theme in Berlioz's SF
Dies Irae
"day of wrath" - chant, used in mvt V of BSF and also Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini
col legno
strings play with the back of the bows - skeletal sound - mvt V BSF
three major characteristics of romanticism
beautiful melodies; accompaniment; orchestration
descriptive symphony
not a program symphony, but a symphony inspired by an even in a comp's life

ie Mendelssohn's Scottish, Italian, and Reformation symphonies (3, 4, 5)
Richard Strauss
master of the tone poem

Don Juan; Don Quixote; Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks; Also Sprach Zarathustra
Felix Mendelssohn (historically)
son of well-do do Jewish family

around during rising Antisemitism; had some trouble getting music published; tried to convert but failed

- sometimes published as Mendelssohn-Bartholy

sister: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Mendelssohn (music)
wrote 5 symphonies; last 3 are descriptive symphonies (Scottish, Italian, Reformation)

wrote lots of chamber music
Johannes Brahms
on structure side of structure vs freedom controversy

thought of symphony as epitome of composing; didn't write one till he was 42, then wrote 4 in ten years and then called it quites

most of his work is chamber music

ie "A German Requiem" (choral); "Academic Festival Overture"
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (historically)
hard life - was probs gay

Mme von Meck funded lots of his work; they never met

official death was from cholera, but who knows (maybe suicide)
Tchaikovsky (music)
wrote 6 symphonies; no 6 = "Pathetique" - completed 2 months before death. 3rd and 4th mvts are switched around; 3rd is bombastic and 4th is somber.
Antonin Dvorak
Czech composer, highly interested in folk music and highly nationalistic

taught in NYC for a few years; spent his summers in Spillville, Iowa, where he worked on his 9th symphony - the "New World" symphony - used ideas from Native American music and African American spirituals
Gustav Mahler
known as a conductor > composer in his time

into German and Austrian folk songs

10 symphonies; #1 = "Titan"; #8 = "1,000"
Sergei Rachmaninoff
outstanding pianist/composer

1st concerto and 1st symphony sucked; went to a hypnotist; 2nd concert = one of his best

"Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini"

"Rachmaninoff" signature at ends of pieces