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75 Cards in this Set

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Small-scale maps vs. large-scale maps

small-scale: depict larger areas with fewer details

large-scale: depict smaller areas with more detail

Prime Meridian

1884: the zero point, passing through Greenwich, England (24 time zones)


the art and science of mapmaking

Latitude vs Longitude

Latitude (horizontal)- aka parallels

Longitude (vertical)- aka meridians

Absolute Location

Exact spot where coordinates meet (latitude/longitude)

Northern Hemisphere

Southern Hemisphere

Eastern Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

Northern: north of equator

Southern: south of equator

Eastern: east from prime meridian

Western: west from prime meridian

Tropic of Cancer

the parallel (latitude) 23.5 degrees north of equator

Tropic of Capricorn

the parallel (latitude) 23.5 degrees south of equator

Arctic Circle

parallel (latitude) 66.5 degrees north of equator

Antarctic Circle

parallel (latitude) 66.5 degrees south of equator

Vegetation zones (biomes)

forests, grasslands, deserts, tundra

Climate zones

tropical, dry, temperate, continental, polar

--> climate is the long-term average weather conditions of a place

Coral Reefs

-formed by tiny tube-shaped polyps

-animal life in tough limestone skeletons

-grows by branching out shoots of polyps

3 types of coral reefs

1. fringing reefs: surround "fringe" and island

2. barrier reefs: reef becomes barrier around island (water between island and reef is lagoon)

3. Atolls: sinking island goes under, coral reef around lagoon


Orogeny: as plates collide, they push up the crust to form mountains

3 types:

1. 2 continental plates: if crust buckles and folds, folded mountains (Appalachians, alps, himalayas)

2. Subduction: denser oceanic plate goes under continental plate and folds margin of continent (Andes)

3. Oceanic under oceanic plate, volcanic mountains formed (Japan, Philippines).

Carrying Capacity

maximun, sustained level of use an environment can incur without significant deterioration

Geomorphology (physiography)

the study of landforms and relationships of structures (and how they change)

Bodies of water

Oceans: 71% of earth's surface

Seas: partially surrounded by land (salt-water)

Lakes: in depression on earth's surface

Rivers: channeled flow of water

Canals: artificial waterways constructed by humans (Panama, Suez)

Types of Landforms

Mountains: steep from earth's surface (at least 1000-2000 feet above sea level)

Hills: rise 500-2000 feet above sea level

Foothills: low series of hills between plain and mountain

Valleys: long depression between hills or mountains

Plateaus: elevated, flat on top, usually next to mountains (up to 10,000 feet above sea level)

Mesas: smaller than plateaus in arid/semi-arid areas


accumulations of silt deposited at river mouths into the seabed that become fertile crop-growing areas

Marshes vs. Swamps

Marsh: no trees, always wet from floods/poor drainage

Swamp: have trees and dry periods

*both wet lowlands

Taiga vs. Tundra

Taiga: colder winters, hotter summer, farther from arctic

Tundra: marshy plain, very cold, little snow

*both: many plants+animals, few humans because of harsh climates

Humid continental climate

4 seasons, US/Canada,Russia

Prairie Climates

(steppe regions) dry flatlands-grasslands or deserts

Subtropical climates

very humid areas

Marine climate

near or surrounded by water, moisture, mild temperatures year around, lots of rain


natural resources that have to be extracted and purified (vs. created) e.g. mineral ores

Copernicus's heliocentric view of the universe

positions sun as center of universe


used magnified glasses to become first person to observe single-celled organisms.


created method to classify plants and animals--Linnaean taxonomy

Gregor Mendel

experimented with pea plants to observe occurrence of inherited traits -- "father of genetics"

Barbara McClintock

first genetic map for maize and able to demonstrate basic genetic principles...such as recombination as exchange for chromosomal information

regression analysis

method of analyzing sets of data and sets of variables that involves studying how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varies and other independent variable is fixed


naturally occurring, inorganic solids

definite chemical compound composition

orderly internal crystal structure

sedimentary rocks

formed by the process of lithification (compaction).

igneous rocks

from magma (molten material from beneath earths surface

intrusive type: cools slowly e.g. granite

near surface: extrusive, cools quickly

metamorphic rocks

changed by great heat and pressure

parts of earth

crust- crust & solid part of upper mantle form lithosphere (rocky)

mantle- lower/upper layers

core- solid inner portion

biomes/ecosystems (8 total) associated with latitude

high latitude: least sunlight : tundra, taiga

mid latitude: grassland, temperate, forest, chaparral

latitude closest to equator: warmest- desert, tropical rain forest

8th biom is ocean

tilt of earth's axis

causes seasons

affects temperature because it affects amount of sun the area receives

hemisphere tilted toward sun is in summertime; fall/spring between two extremes

water cycle

three states of water: liquid, frozen, vapor

precipitation: water falls to surface

canopy interception: precipitation lands on plants

snowmelt: runoff from snow

infiltration: water flows from surface into ground

evaporation: liquid-->gas

sublimation: solid --> water vapor (without changing to liquid)

advection: movement of water through the atmosphere

condensation: water vapor--> liquid water

transpiration: water vapor released from plants into air


closest to the sun; smallest

no satellites, atmosphere


second from sun; bright, similar size to earth; lighting/thunder


4th planet from sun; reddish due to iron oxide; seasonal cycles


5th from sun, largest planet


6th from sun; second largest; core of rock/ice


8th from sun; 12 moons

eukaryotic cells

- have nucleus; more complex

- DNA in chromosones in the nucleus

plant vs. animal cells

- both eukaryotic

- plant: cell wall that can handle high pressure

& chloroplasts (photosynthesis) converts sun into food; larger cells


produce energy from food in animal cells

rod shaped organelles

site of cellular respiration

provides energy for cellular activities

cell cycle

process by which a cell reproduces

cell growth, duplication, cell division

cells can reproduce though meiosis and mitosis

mitosis - daughter cell is exact replicate (cell splits into two)

- cell prepares for divison

meiosis - duaghter cell has different genetic coding


fossil records to compare anatomies of extinct species


believed evolution and thought it was a natural occurrence influenced by the environment

theory of evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics


natural selection


geographical uniformitarianism


independentally developed theory of evolution by natural selection

believed in transmutation of species (one species develops into another)

skeletal system

bones/joints; provides support to body through rigid structure; protection to internal organs

muscular system

muscles; allows body to move and respond to environment

digestive system

mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum, anal canal, teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver , gallbladder, pancreas, appendix


an area in which species are associated because of climate


study of plants, animals, their environments, and how they interact


community of species and all of the environment factors that affect them


all matter consists of atoms; one of the most basic units of matter

central nucleus surrounded by electrons (negative charge)

nucleus: protons (determines atomic number) and neutrons (uncharged)

endothermic vs. exothermic

endo- absorb heat

exo- give off heat

acids and bases

acid- lower pH=higher H+ concentration

base -higher pH= lower H+ concentration

kinetic theory of gases

assumes that gas molecules are small compared to distance between thm and they are in constant random motion

as temp of gas increases, so does kinetic energy

charle's law

gases expand when they are heated (law of volumes)


studies conversion of energy into work and heat. variables such as temperature, volume, and pressure.

newtons first law

object will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force

objects inertia directly related to mass

more intertia--> more mass

newton's second law

objects acceleration in directly proportion to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the objects mass (F=ma)

newtons third law

for every force, there is an equal and opposite force

potential vs. kinetic energy

potential: amount of energy stores in object because of position/orientation (gravity)

kinetic: evergy of object in motion

Work: amount of energy expended in accomplishing some goal


chemical bonding of cells

most often occurs : transfer or sharing of outermost electrons (covalent; ionic)

salt in water

volume of water does not increase, mass does...salt fits between water molecules

solar eclipse

sun mood earth aligned