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282 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What help the bones of children to not fracture easily leading to buckle fracture and greenstick fracture ?

They have periosteum lining their bone

What is mcmurray test ?

Pain or popping while external (medial meniscal tear)or internal rotation ( lateral meniscal)of knee

Medial mensical injury accompany injury of what ligament usually

Medial ligament due to twisting i jury

Differnce in tension in greenatick and torus

Greenstick (bone fail at tension side and intact in compression side)

Torus ( tension remain intact)

Prepatellar bursitis and infrapatellar bursitis associated with what occupation?

Mechanics / plumbers , carpet layers

Ansirine bursitis along medial knee

Obese or atheltes

Suprapatellar bursa location

Btw distal femur and quadriceps

Suprapatellar bursa in who


Trochantric bursitis

Pain on lateral hip or thigh ( pain increase when lying on the side or by walking)

Musclea abduct below horizental line



Muscles abduct above horizantal line


Serratus anterior

What cause nursmaid elbow

Radial head sublaxation due to tear in annular ligament.

Presentation of nursemaid elbow

Extended elbow

Pronated forearm

Arm held close to body

Pts with medial epicondilitis will have diffculty what


Pts with lateral epicondilitis will have diffculty what

Extension ( site extensor carpi radialis brevis insertion)

Is it true inflammation in epicondylitis ?

No , it is called angiofibroblastic tendonitis ( due to increase fibroblast and neovasculrization)

Feeling tenderness in anatomical snuffbox

Scaphoid fracture

What is the other name for flexor retinaculum

Transverse carpal ligament

What forms guyon canal


Hool of hamate

Pisohamate ligament

Fracture of 5th metacarpal neck

Boxer fracture ( commonly infected by ekinella)

What border anatomical snufbox

Medially (extensor pollices )

Lateraly ( extensor pollices brevis)

Floor ( scaphoid and trapezium)

Axillary nerve commonly runs through what ?

Quadragranular space (bordered lateraly by humerus and medially by long jead of triceps and inferiorly by teres major and superiorly by teres minor) and surgical neck of humerus

What DTR can be lost in musculicutanous nerve injury ?


Pts with decrease triceps reflex usually have injury to what

Radial nerve

Fingerdrop of thumb due to what

Sublaxation of radial head usully in pts who do pronation and suponation alot ( using screwdriver)

Lead to injury of deep branch of radial nerve

Suprachondylar fractur anteriomedially injur what

Median nerve

Suprachondylar fracture laterally injure what ?

Radial nerve

Suprachondylar fracture with posterior dislocation

Unlar nerve damage

Falling on flexed elbow usually injure what

Ulnar nerve

Brachial plexus control all of the upper extrimity except what muscle

Trapezius ( accessory nerve)

Nerves injured in erbs palsy ?



TOS most commonly occur where

Scalene triangle

Abnormal insertion or spasm of scalene muscle lead to what


How fractured clavicle can lead to TOS

Subclavian vein thrombosis lead to PE

What is cervical rib

Cartelegnous elongation of 7th rib

What cause pain in TOS

Subclavian A compression

What lead to edema in TOS

Subclavian vein compressio

Pt cant abduct shoulder above horizantal line , how to know if it due to long thoracic nerve or accessory nerve injury

If scapula winging ( long thoracic)

If there shoulder drop( accessory, long thoracic dont cause shoulder drop )

What happen in radial pulse when moving head to opposite side in TOS ?

Diminshed radial pulse

Injury to both median and ulnar nerves lead to what ?

Simian hand

Palpable mass in mid upper arm , what to think

Biceps tendon rupture

What common injury occur in baseball playrrs and tt

Ulnar collateral ligament injury ( strengthen ulnohumeraljoint)

Tt tomy john surgery

Clavicular fracture direction of proximal and distal segments

Proximal ( upward by SCM)

Distal ( downward by pectoralis major)

What supply latismuss dorsi and funxn

Thoracodorsal nerve

it leads to shoulder (extension,Adduction,Internal rotation)

The only nerve course through obturator canal

Obturator nerve

What type of pelvic surgery can lead to obturator nerve injury


Bladder ca

Loss of sensation of anterior thigh of knee reflex loss ?

Femoral nerve injury

What nerve pass deep to midpoint of inguinal canal to reach thigh ?

Femoral N.

Abcess or hematoma of paoas major can compress what nerve ?

Femoral nerve

Injury due to superficial peroneal nerve

Loss of eversion and loss of dorsum of foot sensation

Injury due to deep peroneal nerve

Drop foot

Loss of sensation btw 1st and 2nd toes

Tarsal tunnel syndrome symptoms

Tibial nerve injury

Lead ONLY to sensory loss over the sole of foot ( no motor problems)

Knee trauma to popletial foss lead to injury of what ?

Tibial nerve injury

Pts with tibial nerve injury cant curl their toes , what muscles lead to this function

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallicus longus

Trendelburg sign seen where

Fracture of femoral neck

Hip disloction .

Gluteus medius paralysis ( superior gluteal nerve)

Best site for intamuscular injection

Von hochester triangle ( superolateral quadrent , on the lateral side )

If intramuscular injection applied in superiomedial quadrant , what injury would result ?

Superior gluteal nerve injury ( gluteus medius paralysis)

If intramuscular inection applied in site other than superior medial or superiolateral , what nerve injury would result

Sciatic nerve

What nerve exit through great sciatic foramen above the piriformis ?

Superior gluteal nerve

What nerve exit through greter sciatic foramen and below piriformis ?

Inferior gluteal nerve

What nerve exit through great sciatic foramen btw piriformis and coccygeus muscle ?

Sciatic nerve

Shat land mark do we use in pudendal nerve block ?

Ischeal spine

Muscle leave through lesser sciatic foramen


Fan shaped muscle


Muscle that work externaly rotate the thigh when extended and abduct when thigh flexed ?


Muscle we use to sit up from supine position

Rectus abdominus

Abdominal oblique

Hip flexors ( mostly illiopsoas)

Most common injured ligament in LOW ankle sprain ( WHILE PLANTARFLEXED WITH INVERSION)

Anterior talofibular ligament

Most common high ankle sprain ligament injury( while dorsiflexion)

Anterior inferior tibiofibular

Forced eversion of foot lead to what injury

Dupyturyn fracture (most commonly avulsion fracture of medial malleolus, injury to deltoid ligament , lower end of fibula )

Piriformis syndrome ( hypertrophy of priformis ) affect what nerve ?

Sciatic nerve ( pain and tingling in buttocks and thighs)

Intrabdominal infection can spread to what muscle lead to formation of abcess in it ?

Psoas muscle

Pts with psoas abcess have what ?

Hip flexion


+ve psoas sign ( pain with hip extension)


Sensory loss on upper anteriomedial thigh

No hip flexion ( illiopsoas)


Sensory loss ( anteriomedial thigh)

No hip flexion or knee extension


Sensory loss anterioltaeral thigh

Loss of knee reflex

No knee extension or hip extension ( gluteus maximus)


Sensation loss on posterior thigh, buttcks and dorsal foot

No foot dorsiflexion ( tibilis anterior)

No Foot eversion ( proneus)

No Toe dorsiflexion


Loss of achillis reflex

Lossof sensation of posterior thigh , buttocks , lateral side of foot

No hip extension ( gluteus maximus)

No knee flexion ( hamstring)

No plantar flexion ( gastronemeus)

How to differ btw conus medullaris(L2) syndrome and cauda equina (S2-S4)?

Cauda equina has loss of anorectal reflex

Patellar fracture presntaion

Can extend knee , swelling in knee

Things that lead to patellar fracture

Landing on feet after falling

( due to injur of quadrecips muscle that insert in tibial tuborsity)

Function of T tubules ?

Coordinated contraction of muscles

Decreased T tubules seen where ?

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy

Limb gridle dystrophy occur due to what

Cavolin mutation ( low T tubules) ..

Uncoordinated contraction

Binding of new ATP at the end of contraction lead to detachment of myosin head, if not present , what will happen

Sustained contraction ( rigor mortis)

What lead to relaxation of muscle?

Increase sacroplasmic reticulum Ca++ and low intracellular Ca++



Postural muscles ( paraspinal muscles , soleus...) contain what muscle fiber type ?

Type 1

They contain low glycogen

Type 2 muscles have high or low glycogen

High glycogen

Proprioceptors systems of muscle

Spindle muscle system

Golgi tendon organ

Function of spindle muscle system

It sense the strech and the speed of strech so when you strech muscle to the endpoint your spindle muscle system sense that and send signals to spinal cord to stop streching .

Function of golgi organ tendon

Sense tension on muscle , so when you try to left overweight , if you you are exerting to much tension on muscle , golgi tendon will relax the muscle )

Source of NO that lead to smooth muscle relaxation ?


Other name of lamellar bone

Compact bone

Which type of bone cells is mononuclear

Osteoblast, while osteoclast is multinuclear

What we use to measure osteoblast activity ?




Osteoblast secrete collagen and lead to minerlizatiin how

In alkaline envirmoent via ALP

How exactly low estrogen lead to osteoprosis ?

Estrogen increase osteoprtogein bind to RANK receptor prevent mononuclear osteoclast to diferentiate into multinuclear osteoclast .

Thats why when have low estrogen , means higher osteoclast maturation

What is the role of FGFR3 mutation in achondroplasia ?

Inhibit chondrocyte proliferation

Increased paternal age associated with what ?


Achondroplasia is autosomal dominat that show ------- and if was homozygous it will be -------

Full penetrance


Osteoprosis show loss in what fype of bone

Trabecular( spongy) and cortical bone

What is the most common site of fracture in osteoprosis ?

Vertebral bodies


Neck of femur

Drugs can lead to osteoprosis




GnRH agonist

Anticonvulsant ( phenytoin / phenobarbital/ carbamezapine)

Thyroid replacment therapy

African american have ---- bone density and ------- risk of fracture



Charastarestic finding in osteopetrosis ?

Persistance of 1°unmenarlized spongiosa in medullary canals

Process where woven immature bone convert to compact bone is what in osteopetrosis ??


Pts with carbonic anhydrase can have what renal problem ?


Histological mark of ricktes or ostemalacia ?

Defective menralization of osteoi .

With accumlation around trabeculea

What seen in rickets on xray

Epiphyseal cupping or fraying

Osteocytes within lacune in chaotic juxtapositions seen wheere

Paget disease

Paget disease associated with what heart condition early in disease

High output heart failure

What is specific for osteoclasts in paget disease

Osteoclast normaly have 2- 5 nuclei , while in paget they can have up to 100 nuclei

Paget disease tt ?


AVN of tibial tubercle seen where ?

Osgood schlatter

AVN presentation

Only decrease ROM with pain

no erythema or swelling

What artery is very important in children and aupply femoral head proximal to epiphuseal plate ?

Artery of ligmantum teres ( brancg of obturator)

In pagrt disease , in what phase the mosaic pattern will form?


Osteoma ?

Facial bone ( gardner synd.)

Osteoid osteoma ?

Bone pain resolves with aspirin

Arise from bone cortex

Osteochondroma site ?

Metaphysis of long bone

Familial retinoblastoma associated with which bone Ca ?

Osteosarcoma( osteogenic sarcoma)

Bx of osteogenic sarcoma show ?

Cells produce osteoid

Ewing sarcoma can be confused with what

Chronic osteomylitis and lymphoma ( they present with high fever)

Translocation 11:22 lead to what protein


What bone ca arise from medulla of hands and feets


What bone ca arise from medulla of pelvis and caudal skeleton ?


What type of infection arise from metaphysis


First joint usually affected in osteoarthritis

1st CMC

What are the cause of anti-CCP in RA ?

Tissue inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis lead to arginine residues like (vemintine) to convert to citrulline in a process called citrulation .change in shape detected as antigens by antibodies

Joints that are spared in RA ?


1st CMC

Stifness in RA last for how long

More than 1 h

Pt with RA satrted on hydroxychloroquine , how to monitor ?

Opthalmoscope ( retinopathy risk)

What is the 1st line tt in RA ?

Steroids and NSAIDs ( rapid effect)

We use them until DMARDs take effect

Fibrinoid necrosis with pallisading histocytes in subQ tissue , result from what ?


What is felty syndrome

Rheumatoid arthritis + neutropenia + splenomegaly

What type of cells play a role in gout


Gout occur with rich purine food like:


Red meat


NSAID ( indomethacin) ,

If contraindicated

Steroid or cholchicine

Can we use allopurinol / febuxostat in gout ?


How to treat acutly pseudogout ?




How to PREVENT pseudogout


Sjogren affect what type of glands ?

Exocrine glands especially lacrimal and salivary

Anti SSA can be seen with other disease , and if was positive in pregnant women it will give indication of what ?


if in pregnant ( higher risk of congenital heart block)

How to diagnose Sjogren's syndrome

Labial salivary gland biopsy

Septic arthritis wbc synovial

WBC >50,000

Synovial WBC in RA and osteoarthritis


RA (2000-50,000)

What is juvinile idiopathic arthritis ?

In children <12 yo

Spiking fever .

Salmon pink macular rash

Arthritis >2 joints

Thrombocytosis, high ESR

Tt : Nsaids , steroid, MTX

JIA vs Leukemia



Enthesitis ( pain on tendon insertion) seen where

Seronegative spondyloarthropathies

How to monitor progression of pts with Ankylosing ?

By measuring chest expansion ( costovertebral and costosternal ankylosis leading to limited chest expansion)

Keratoderma belnnorhagicm seen where ?

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis seen after how long after urethritis or entritis ?

1-4 wks

Cause of clinical manifestations in reactive arthritis

Immune complexes

Joint aspiration of reactive arthritis ?


Sacroilliac joint and spine involvment lead to fusion seen in

Ankylosing spondylitis

Drug induced lupus






Antiphospholipid antibodies


B2 glycoprotein ABs

Anticardiolipin antibodies lead to what ?


Prolonged PTT

Mixed connective tissue disease anti bodies

Anti-U1 RNP

What are ANTI U1 RNP ?

Speckled ANA

Neonatal lupus antibodies ?

Anti-Ro abs

A very important finding in sarcoidosis to differ from other interstitial disease

increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio

Shaumann bodies

Asteroid bodies ?

Shwumann ( calcification)

Asteroid ( stelliate giant cell)

How to dx fibromyalgia ?

Fatigue more than 3 m without any findings

Cause of fibromyalgia ?

Abnormal Central processing of painful stimuli

Cause of endomysial inflammation with CD8+ in polymyositis ?

MhC I overexpression on sacrolemma

Specefic abs of polymoyositis/ dermatomytosis

AntiSRP abs

AntiMi2 abs

Tt of polymyositis and dermatomyositis

Steroids followd by Longterm MTX

Antihysidyl tRNA synthase abs are ?


Polymyositis histology ?

Perimysial inflammation and atrophy

Cells involved in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

Polymyoaitis ( CD8+)

Dermatomyosiits ( CD4+)

Dermatomyoaitis , youl should look for ?

Occult malignancy like ovarian, lung or gastric cancer or colorectal cancer

How to differ btw lambert eaton and MG

Lambert Eaton patients improve with muscle use while MG worse

Lambert eaton show dec. DTR while MG not

Raynaud phenomenon

Small vessels spasm due to cold or stress

Raynaud phenomen color change

White ( ischema)


Blue ( hypoxia)


Red ( reperfusion)

Raynaud syndrome vs raynaud disease

Raynaud syndrome ( when come with connectibe tissue disease)

Raynaud diseas (when come alone)

Raynaud syndrome can have what ine fingers

Ulcdration due to ischemea

Raynaud tt


Pt with MG and on pyredostigmine , and start to have symptom worsening what to do next

Do edrophnium test.

If improved (Treating dose wasnt enough)

If no improvment ( pt is having cholenergic crisis and pyredostigmine should be stopped)

Skin layers from surface to base

Stratum corneum





Stem cells presnt in which layer of skin

Stratum basale

Keratin presentnin which layer of skin


Desmosomes presnt in which skin layer

Startum spinosum

Stratum lucidum present only where ?

Palmar or plantar

Tight junctions present where

Stratum granulosum

Tight junctions function and composed of what

Prevent paracelular movment

Contain claudins ( target of c.diff)

And occludins

Adherense junctio ( aka belt desmosome or zonula adherens )

Conncect actin with cadherins

Loss of cadherins >>mets

Desomosmes ( aka spot desmosome , macula adherens)

Support ( intermediate filaments)

Contain cadherins ( desmoplakina and deamoglien)

Gap junctions ( aka connexons)

Permit elictrical and chemical communication


Contain integrin

Connect keratin in basal layer to BM


Bind collagen and laminin and fibronectin and actin in BM

Unlike others It binds to actin INRACELLULARY

What are cellular anchors



adherens Junction

What is hypergranulosis

Thickness of stratum granulosum like in lichen planus

What is dyskeratosis, give example

Premature keratinization of keratinocytes below stratum granulosum .

SCC or dyskeratosis congenita ( genitc mutation)

What is postinflammatory hypopigmentation

Redistribution of existing melanin and resuced transfer of melanin to keratinocytes

Cafe au lait spot cause ?

Increase melasome aggregates within melanocyte

Side effects of applying steroids for long periods on skin like in eczema pts??

Decreased extracellular Matrix collagen and GAGs production, leading to (atrophy of dermis ,drying, cracking and skin tightening)

Atopic dermatitis cant be diagnosed without this symptom

Intense pruritis

Acne stages

-Follicular hyperproliferation and keratin block sebum .

-excessive sebum production.

- inflammation .

-Propionobacterium acne .

-bacterial hydrolysis of TGA and release of FFA

Propionobacterium acne now called what

Cutibacterium acne


Propionobacterium pilosebceous glands colonization

Acne tt


Benzoyl peroxidas


Mutation in what predispose atopic eczema ?

Fillaggrin ( skin barrier dysfunction)

If atopic eczema was not treated what will the biopsy will show

Intraepidermal vesicles hyperkeratosis

epidermal hyperplasia

Bx of contact dermatitis

Spongiosus and lymphocytic perivascular infiltrate

Junctional nevi are limited to what

Dermoepidermal junction

Does intraepidemal nevi produce pigment

No ( tyrosine lost)

Pseudofolliculitis barbae

Occur after shaving .

Where do we see munro microabcess ?

Psoriasis ( neutrophills collection in stratum corneum)

Main type of cells in psoriasis ?

CD4+ Tcells

Acanthosis and mitotic activity above epidermal basal lyer

In psoriasis

Rosacea ?

Commonly lead to rhinphyemea

They lack comedons

Alcohol or heat perciptate it

Histology of seborrhic hyperkeratosis ?

Keratin pseudocyst


Superficial dermal edema and lymph dilatation

What things lead to IgE independent degranulation ?


radio contrast


Mast cell independent urticaria


Hereditry angineurotic edema

Angiosarcoma of liver associations

Radiation therapy

post-mastectomy lymphedema

Vinyl chloride


Bacillary angiomatosis vs kaposi?

Bacillary has neutrophillic infiltrate while kaposi has lymphocytic

Cherry hemangioma regression

Dont regress

Strawberry hemangioma regression

Grows rapidly and regress by 5 to 8 years

Cavernous hemangioma

Manily in dermis

If in Brain ( VHL)

Glomus tumor

Painful blue tumor under nails .

Arise from smooth muscle thermoregulatory glomus

body .

Glomus tumor DDx

Subungual melanoma

Pts with skin scalded syndrome in adults when

Renal insuffeciency

SSSS show what sign

Positive nikolasky sign

Diff btw pemphigus and pemhigoid

Pemphigus ( intraepithelial cleavage)

Pemphgoid ( subepidermal cleavage)


Pephigus ( bullea rupture easily)

Pemphigoid (( hard bullae)


Pemphigus ( affect oral mucosa)

Pemphigoid ( spare oral mucosa)


Pemphigus ( netlike pattern)

Pemphigoid ( linear pattern)

Bullae spread laterally with pressure is with what ?

Pemphigus ( asboe hansen sign)

Tt of dermatitis herptiformis?


Target lesions

Erythema multiforme


Necrotic keratinocyte in epidermis


Antibodies against skin BM proteins seen in ?

Epidermolysis bullosa acquista

Cicatricial pemphigoid

Connexinn defcets seen in

Palmoplantar keratoderma

Deafness associated icothysis

Collarette scales seen in ?

Pytriasis rosea

Pytriasis rosea course ?

Self resolving ( 6-8wks)

Erythema nodsum cells

Neutrophillic and giant cell infiltration

Erythema nodsum histopathlogy

Widening of connective tissue

Hyperkeratosis leading to cutanous horns

Actinic keratosis

what lead to overactivation of BRAF in melanoma ?

NRAS independent way

Malignant behavior of melanoma related to expression of what


What would improve the prognosis of melanoma

Presence of lymphocytic infiltration

Melanoma commonly metastasizes to where

CNS leading to seizures

How does aspirin inhibit COX

Covalent acytelation

Shortly after startimg colchicine pt can develop what ?


Avoid colchicine in ?

Renal failure

We use NSAIDs in acute gout tt but never use salicylates , why ??

Decrease uric acid secretion espwcially at low doses

Probencid contraindicated in ?

Renal stones Hx

Teriparatide Moa

Recombimant PTH ( increase osteoblast activity

Teriparatide use

Osteoprosis ( they cause bone growth , while bisphosphonate prevent bone loss only)

Teriparatide SE ?

Increase osteosarcoma ( avoid in paget disease pt or pt prior Ca or radiation therapy)

Which drug in gout tt consodered as uricosuric ?


Acute compartment syndrome usually occur where ?

Anterior compartment ( anterior tibial A, deep peroneal nerve "foot drop", foot extensor muscles, )

Posterior Compartment syndrome contain what nerve ?


Lateral Compartment syndrome contain what nerve ?

Superficial peroneal Nerve and proximal part of deep peroneal )

Osgood schlatter occur why ?

Overuse of apophysis ( 2° ossification center) of tibial tubercle .

Occur commonly due to jumping in children

Where do we do the femoral nerve block ?

At the inguinal crease .

Femoral nerve is lateral to inguinal canal and not accessible there

Osteocyte connect to each other via

Gap junctions

Things that reflects osteoclastic activity ?

Taratrate phosphatase

Urinary hydroxyproline

Urinary deoxypyridine

B cell activating factor def and excess



Types of glands

Merocrine ( secrete via exocytosis, like salivary ,)

Apocrine ( secrete via merbrone bound vesicles , like mammary glands)

Holocrine ( cell lysis , like sebacous and mebomian )

What sense the stress in bone and what is the response

Osteocyte , leading ro osteoblast actvation ( remodelling)

How osteoblast promote minerlization

Secrete osteocalcin and phosphatase

What muscle is the most important in achieving intraabdominal and intrathoracic pressure

Rectus abdominus

Cause of neurogenic claudication in degenrative arthritis

Due to vertbral disc degnration ( leading to ligmantum flavum hypertrophy )

Differ btw ephlides and solar lentigines ?

Ephlides ( increase melanin production)

Solar lentigens ( increase prolifratiom of melanocyte themsleves)

Alopecia areata tt


Vit D can be used to tt what skin condition ?

Psoriasis ( decrease keratinocyte proliferation and differntiation)

Why gout usually appear after trauma history ?

Normaly urate crystals are coated with apolipoprotein E or B , so when trauma occur it will expose them to IgG leading to release of IL-1( infiltration of neutrophil and macrophages )

What will mollacosum conatgoisum show on bx ?

Eosinophillic cytoplasmic inclusions

Most common injured structure in knee posterior and anterior dislocation is what ?

Popliteal artery which is fixed to adductor magnus and soleus muscles ( not tibial nerve )

Contributors of osteoarthritis ?

Excessive biochemical stress and increased metalloprotease activity

What is callus ?

Area of repeated friction lead to thikening in skin due to thickening of stratum corneum

What is the name of cells that have a role in both destruction and repair in osteoarthritis ?


Manifistations if systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis ?

- Reccurent and relapsing spiking fever

- salmon pink rash

- polyarticular joint pain

- macrophages start to digest RBC ( in about 30-50% of pts )

- anterior uveitis

Tt: steroids /MTX /IVIG

Which antifungal lead to testrone inhibtion and to hyperpigmentation of skin ?


What is Iliotibial band syndrome

Pain on lateral knee due to overuse in runners

What is medial tibial stress ( AkA shin splints ) ?

Bone resorption that outpaces bone formation in tibial cortex

In runners and military recruits

What defines compartment syndrome ?

Pressure gradient btw compartment and diastolic BP is <30

Heel pain that is worse during first steps in morning ?

Plantar fasciitis

What is dequervian tenosynovitis ?

Noninflmmatory thickineing of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis .

They have +ve finkelstein test

What is Ganglion cyst ?

Fluid filled swelling arise from dense connective tissue herniation

What is DDH ?

Abnormal acetabulum development .

Xray done 4-6 months until cartilage is calcified

Leg calve perthes ?

AVN of femoral head in children 5-7 y.o