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45 Cards in this Set

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longitudinal research study
Same individual group is observed performing the same task over time
Cross-sectional research study
Observing groups of individuals overbearing ages over a point in time
Mixed longitudinal or sequential study
Several age groups are there at one time or over a short time.
A group of members who share one common characteristic such as
Newell's model of constraints
Individual environmental and task
Individual constraints
A person's personal constraint can be structural such as height and weight or functional such as motivation and experience
Environmental constraints
Outside the body and the world around us temperature like humidity gravity surfaces floors walls
task constraints
Include goals or movement of an activity examples rules for that movement and choice of equipment
Physical growth versus maturation
Chesil concluded that children develop in an orderly fashion predictable and predetermined over childhood
Believe that genetics and heredity are primarily responsible for motor development environment has little effect
Information processing perspective
Brain acts like a computer taking in information processing it and outputting a movement
Echological perspective
Interelationships between individual environmental and the task includes all constraints such is the body type motivation temperature in ball size
motor learning
Movement changes that are relatively permanent but related to experience or practice rather than age
Body scaling
Using particular individuals body proportions when making body movement decisions
Rate limiter versus controller
Individual constraint or system that hold back or slow the emergence of a skill. Controller is the system or part that is necessary or that declines first
Newton's first law
an object at rest stays at rest in an object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by force
Newton's second law
The acceleration of a person or an object is proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass
Newton's third law
Every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Oppositional locomotor movement
upper and lower body proportions twist to in an opposite way .opposite leg and arm
stability and mobility reaction
a person resists movement or disruption increase base of support and lower center of gravity and increased stability leads to improved balance and decreased mobility
force absorption
to decrease the impact of landing bending knees increases time and distance catch a ball and bring it into their body
congenital defect
abnormalities present at birth regardless of weather their cause is genetic or extrinsic
any drug that can harm the fetus upon exposure ex small virus alcohol
cerebral cortex
surface of brain containing millions of neurons and regulation of many human behavior and functions
appositional bone growth
So that we are for diameter growth and width girth
Growth in the number of cells
Growth in the actual size of the individual cell
Where the muscle tendon attaches on the bone
Epithelial growth plate( pressure epithesis)
Secondary ossification center and bone shaft increase in length
bone loss in the aging
Bone formation slows and cannot keep pace with reabsorption lost bone tissue and early as the 20s one bone mass per year physical activity applied to bones helps maintain and density hormone level diet and exercise influence bone loss
Cardiac development in a child
Right ventricle is large at birth and will reach proportion follows the sigmoid pattern heart volume to body weight remains about the same throughout growth
cardiac demise in the aging
Her ability to adapt to an increased workload declines degeneration of heart muscle valves in fiber and decreased elasticity most changes are due to lifestyle not pathology of muscle fibers
Facilitate survival functional reasons
reflex building blocks
Disappear when something is wrong
Individuals of a species show great similarity in their development and that they go through the same changes
Sigmoid pattern
Postnatal development rapid growth after birth followed by a gradual and steady growing during childhood then wrap it again in adolescents and leveling off varies per individual
Environmental task constraint examples
Facility weather temperature. Surrounding altitude
Individual task constraint in samples
Maturation of the CNS development of strength and endurance posture balance improvement of sensory processing
Babinski reflex
Stimulus is a stroke on the sole of the foot toes extend birth to 4 months old persistence after 6 months is dangerous
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
Turn head to one side is stimulus response is the same arm and leg extend prenatal to 4 months after 6 months is dangerous
Why reflexes exist
Gateway of purposeful movement help them survive we do coordinated movements and later give them an opportunity to practice before higher brain centers are ready to mediate at actions
Derotative righting reflex
Stimulus is trying the legs and pelvis to the other side the response of the trunk in the head will rotate this room for months on this is with no warning signs .when you're older you fall and you will extend your wrists to brace the fall
Head and facial structures grow fastest followed by upper body and then slowly lower body
Correction of gross proceeding from the body toward the extremities
Muscle fiber types
type 1 the IIa and IIb