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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Motor development

Study of change in motor behavior & biological changes over time


Qualities set at birth, traits, characteristics

Hair color, eye color, personality (established at age 6)


Observable changes in quantity


Change in functioning- either qualitative or quantitative


Time table of developmental events

Resistant to external influence, genetically determined

Menarche- first occurrence of menstruation

Motor behavior

Observable changes in learning/performance of motor skills/sports

Walking, standing

Cephalocaudal development

Growth from head to feet

Proximodistal development

Growth from center of body to periphery


Opportunities for action that objects, events or places in the environment provide

Stairs, diving boards

Provides stimulus for motor development


Deteriorated capacity to regulate ones internal environment

Reduced probability for survival

Assumption 1

Continual and cumulative- change is constant, based on past experiences


Age related, common milestones (walking, sitting)


Not age related, transitions over time

Assumption 2

All domains are interrelated- physical, cognitive, psychological behavior and environment all contribute to make you YOU

Assumption 3

Individual differences- each person is unique. Heredity and environment play major role

Assumption 4

Environment plays a role- consider a person’s history, culture, and affordances

Assumption 5

Critical and sensitive periods-

Critical- similar to stage, optimal time for emergence of developmental behaviors (4-8 months- grasping)

Sensitive- time when influenced by specific factors (embryonic/fetal- stress, drugs, alcohol)

Assumption 6

Aided by positive stimulation- brain must be stimulated to increase architecture (building blocks, bright colors)

Assumption 7

Much plasticity- change in development due to + and - life experiences

Assumption 8

Motor development is multifaceted and dynamic phenomenon- movement abilities not predominantly ties to genetics

Assumption 9

With age abilities regress- decreased vision, hearing, and muscular strength


Conception to birth

Embryonic period

0-8 weeks prenatal

Fetal period

8 weeks to birth prenatal


Birth to 2 years- highly dependent, beginning of language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination


2-12 years

Early childhood

2-6 years- fund. Motor skills, movement awareness

Late childhood

6-12 years- motor skill refinement, growth rate decreases


12-18 years- landmark, puberty, increased height and weight


3 stages

Young adulthood- 18-40

Middle - 40-60

Older- 60+

Developmental continuum

Overlapping characteristics

Development is continuous


movement (prenatal- 6 months)

Phased out as voluntary control increases

Rudimentary movement

Birth- 2 years

Voluntary movement- crawling, creeping, walking

Fundamental movement

2-6 years

Outgrowth of rudimentary

30+ skills emerge (turn, twist, bend, throw, kick)

Body awareness

Sport skill

6-12 years

Fundamentals more refined

Ability to learn and practice

Growth and refinement

12-18 years

Puberty- hormones increase, increased muscular size/ skeletal growth

Peak performance

25-30 years

Peak physio. Function/ max motor performance

Increased strength, cardio resp endurance, and processing speed


After age 30

Lose 1%/ year of physio./neurological factors

Decreased flexibility and muscle mass

Increased body fat

2 factors of heredity

Genetic makeup



Unit of heredity within chromosomes

1 cell contains 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)


Contains genetic code

Contains history of genes spanning generations

Determine blood type, eye color, intelligence, height, etc.


Cell division

DNA unzips, forms sep. strands, reproduces

RNA- ribonucleic acid

DNA embedded into RNA

Human genome project

Researchers believed the body contained 100k genes

Later determined to contain 20-25k genes

Identified which genes control traits or behaviors


All of genetic inheritance

Disease prone (diabetes, arthritis)


Observable characteristics and behaviors

Hair color, eye color

Nervous system

Most important system

1. Sensory function

2. Integrative function (memory/thought)

3. Motor function

2 parts of nervous system

Central nervous system (CNS)- Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- nerve fibers

Spinal cord

Acts as a pathway for input and response of info processing


Involuntary motion, reflexes


Regulates BP, Respiration, HR




Reflex movements caused by visual/auditory stimulation

Diencephalon 2 parts

Thalamus- sensory information passes through- smell, pressure

Hypothalamus- neural and hormonal functions maintain homeostasis

Reticular formation

Attention, cognition, motor activity

Cerebral cortex

Outer layer of cerebrum

Contains 75% of all neurons in CNS

Critical thinking and info. Processing

Fine motor skills

Basal ganglia

Inner layer of cerebrum

Planning/coordinating movements

Unconscious behavior (muscle tone)

Gross body movements


Coordinated sequences in complex movements (approach in volleyball)

PNS 2 parts

Somatic- controls skeletal muscles, voluntary control

Autonomic- controls internal organs and smooth muscle- involuntarubcintrol

Nerve fibers

Afferent- sensory info to spinal cord

Efferent- motor impulse from brain to limbs


Nerve cell, basic unit of CNS

Impulses travel down neurons to relay info


Connection between an axon and another neuron

Neuromuscular unit (motor unit)

Contains the neuron and all muscle fibers innervated by it

Cell proliferation

Immature neurons become targeted for their role in CNS

Neurons migrate and integrate with other neurons

Cell differentiation

Myelin sheath develops (fatty covering over nerve fibers to allow for smoother communication between neurons)

Known as myelination

Cell death

40-75% of neurons die during steps of CNS development

Only strong survive