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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are glia cells and what do they do?
1. Do not help with cognition.
2. Help with:
- Insulation
- Protection of cell
- Physical support
- Nourishment of neuron
What is a nerve?
1. A group of neurons that go out of the spinal cord together.
2. Transfer signals
What does the Axon Hillock do?
1. Makes sure the signal is strong enough before it passes on.
2. Has to be at least -65 mV to be passed on.
What does the Axon terminal do?
1. Makes connections to other cells.
2. Synapse - space between cells
What is Saltatory Conduction?
1. The conduction process where the action potential jumps along the axon.
2. Myelin sheath allows signal to go by nodes of Ranvier.
Propogation means what in terms of signals?
1. The signal continues down the axon and each channel opens after another.
2. Like a lit fuse.
What is the purpose of the sodium potassium pump?
1. Helps restore concentration of Na and K in the axon.
2. 3 Na for every 2 K.
What helps restore the charge after it has been made positive inside?
1. The potassium channels help send K out to restore the charge inside.
What is reaction time?
1. Time from when stimulus is presented and the response begins.
Why do we use reaction time to measure info-processing?
1. It follows the info-process model.
2. Identification
3. Selection
4. Programming
What is movement time?
1. Time between when the response begins and when the response ends.
What are the factors influencing Reaction Time?
1. # of options.
2. Stimulus response compatibility
3. Unpredictability
4. Intensity
5. Modality
6. # of parts
7. Duration
8. Accuracy
9. Practice
What is Simple Reaction Time?
1. 1 stimulus and 1 response
2. Examples: Swimming, Track
3. 108 milliseconds average RT
What is Choice Reaction Time?
1. 2 or more options
2. Reaction time varies with how many options there are.
3. More options the smaller the amount of reaction time between options.
What is foreperiod?
1. Warning --> stimulus is presented.
2. Similar to "Set" --> Gun goes off.
Why do they vary foreperiod?
1. To prevent anticipation of the start.
2. Want to see reaction time not anticipation.
What is Stimulus-Response Compatibility?
1. Degree in which association between stimulus and response is natural.
Explain the process of action potential going down axon.
1. Action potential goes down axon.
2. It causes sodium channels to open to depolarize and make the inside positive and outside negative.
3. Then 1ms later the potassium channels open to restore charge inside and out by sending out potassium.
4. Then the other sodium channels continue to open, etc down the line like a fuse.
5. Finally the sodium potassium pump restore concentrations of Na and K.
What is the Simon Effect experiment?
1. Quicker reaction time when on the same side.
2. IE: Sound was presented on the left ear and the RT was quicker when pressing the left key than it was with the right.
What is unpredictability?
1. It takes longer to respond to an unexpected event.
What happens to RT with intensity of a stimulus?
1. Higher intensity -- faster reaction time.
2. Lower intensity -- slower reaction time.
3. Intensity can be brightness, loudness, etc.
What is modality?
1. Visual stimulus takes longer to react to than other stimuli such as auditory or tactile.
2. Combinations of modalities are fastest.
What was Henry and Roger's experiment?
1. Respond as quickly to sound as possible.
2. A situation - lift finger off reaction key
3. B situation - lift finger off and touch ball A.
4. C situation - lift finger and touch ball A, B and hit button C.
5. This shows: more complex movements -- longer reaction time.
What is movement duration?
1. Longer duration tend to increase reaction time.
What is movement accuracy?
1. When spatial is important, more accurate we try to be, the longer the RT.
2. When timing is important, the quicker you are the more accurate you are.
What is practice?
1. Simple choice reaction times don't change much.
2. Complex reaction times, practice decreases time it takes.
Review examples of RT principles...
1. # options: football QB deciding on receivers
2. Stimulus-response cability: Crossover in basketball
3. Unexpected: reverse in football
4. Intensity: short, loud commands.
5. Modality: Push and yell rather than just yell.
6. Accuracy: pass closer to net to get a more accurate shot in soccer.
7. Practice: repeat movements, watch film
What is the Psychological Refractory Period?
1. Delay of a person's response to a second stimulus when it is preceeded by the first stimulus compared to when the second stimulus is presented itself.
2. If S1 is between 60 - 120 ms, of S2, the reaction time will be slower because S1 interferred with S2.
What does S1, S2 and RT represent in a sport setting?
S1 - Fake
S2 - Actual movement
RT - reaction time by opponent to movement.
In sports, if the fake or S1 is successful, what will happen to RT and MT?
1. Both reaction time and movement time will be slower due to the fake and additional stimulus.
What is ISI mean and used for?
1. Interstimulus interval.
2. Time between S1 and S2.
3. If ISI is long (over 120 ms) it won't affect RT.
4. If ISI is 60-120 ms it will affect RT as S1 interfers with S2.
5. If ISI is too short, it will blend with S2 and RT will be same.
What are the two visual systems and their characteristics?
1. Focal Vision
- Detail (acuity)
- Consciously controlled
- Degraded in dim lighting
- 3-5 degrees
2. Ambient Vision
- Peripheral
- Positions of objects in relation to us, movements around us.
- Still works under dim light
- Horiz: 200 degrees
- Vert: 160 degrees
What is the retina and the cells that make it up?
1. Back of the eye that interprets light signals.
2. Cones and Rods
What is the Focal System made of?
1. Fovea
2. Mostly cones
3. Color/Acuity
What is the Ambient System made up of?
1. Periphery of Retina
2. Rods
3. Dim light/movement
What is the Fovea?
1. Back of eye on retina that is made up of mostly cones.
2. Color and Acuity
What is the Periphery of Retina?
1. Sides of retina
2. Made up of rods
3. Dim light/movement
What is a saccade?
1. Rapid eye jump
Can Ambient Vision be trained?
1. No
2. You don't decide ambient vision, you decide focal vision.
3. You CAN train what information you get from ambient vision.
Can Focal Vision be trained?
1. Yes
2. You can direct attention to specific information in the environment.
What is the definition of quiet eye?
1. Last fixation before the action
How can quiet eye help experts? novices?
1. Experts: can improve performance, although takes lots time.
2. Novices: can help learn skills faster and may help correct mechanics.
Quiet eye in golf putting?
1. Hole, then the back of the ball for 2 seconds.
2. You can suppress after the follow-through.
Quiet eye in basketball free-throw?
1. Front of the hoop, 2 seconds.
2. Suppress before ball occulates eye.
Quiet eye in hockey (goalie during slap shot)
1. fewer fixations = better goalie.
2. Watch puck on the stick for long period time
Quiet eye in soccer (defender and goalie)
1. fewer fixations = better performance.
2. For defender - look at hip
For goalie - look at support foot
3. Longer = better
Interceptive skills, volleyball serve. What occurs in the three phases?
1. Phase I: anticipate location of ball being contacted. Look at the empty spot.
2. Phase II: track ball immediately and follow until 100 ms before you hit
3. Phase III: keep eyes parked in front of body to hit accurately. Rapid eye movement to target after hit.
What is proprioception?
1. Awareness of our movements, joints and tension in muscle during execution of an action.
Muscle spindle characteristics?
1. Located inside extrafusal muscle fibers
2. Parallel to extrafusal muscle fibers
3. Consists of capsule
4. Do not contribute to contraction.
What is in the capsule of a muscle spindle?
1. Intrafusal muscle fibers
2. Sensory receptors
What are the functions of a muscle spindle?
1. Senses muscle changing length
2. Sense velocity of movement
3. Senses joint position
What is an afferent and efferent nerve?
1. Afferent: sensory nerve - sends signal back to brain
2. Efferent: motor nerve - uses signal to produce movement.
What is alpha-gamma motor neuron co-activation?
1. One signal splits into two, one down to alpha nerve and other to gamma nerve.
2. The alpha nerve activates extrafusal muscle fibers.
3. The gamma nerve activates intrafusal muscle fibers.
What does the alpha motor neuron do?
1. Activates extrafusal muscle fibers
What does the gamma motor neuron do?
1. Activates intrafusal muscle fibers.
When a muscle contracts, does the muscle spindle contract with it?
1. Yes, if it did not contract with the muscle fiber, it would not be able to sense lengthening because it would be loose and lax.
What are golgi tendon organs?
1. Located in junction between muscle and tendon.
3. Tells you how much force you are using each time you contract.
What are mechanoreceptors?
1. Sense pressure changes in the skin and send action potentials to brain.
2. Receptors at different shapes and at different layers of skin.
3. Pick up at different frequencies, pressures and fields.
What are the three functions of the vestibular system?
1. Stabilize eye with head movements.
2. Control balance
3. Linear and angular head motion
What are the two structures included in the vestibular system?
1. Semicircular canals (3)
2. Sac-like structures (2) (Utricle, Saccule)
What are the semicircular canals main purpose?
1. sense rotation, eye/head movements and balance.
2. Anterior, posterior and horizontal (they form a corner like end of box)
What are the sac-like structures purpose?
1. Linear motion and balance.
What are otoliths?
1. Small crystals that are on top of the gelatinous cap.
2. When they move, they sense changes in linear motion (up/down, right/left, forward/backward)
What does the Utricle sense?
1. Forward/backward, left/right
2. Hair cells parallel to ground.
What does the Saccule sense?
1. Hair verticle to ground
2. Sense up/down
What is the ampulla?
1. Enlarged portion at the end of each canal.
2. Hair receptors change from endolymph fluid movement, which causes action potential to be sent to brain.
In the experiment of Lee and Anderson with moving wall, what occurred and what were the conclusions?
1. Floor stationary, wall moved. Adults swayed, kids stumbled.
2. If conflicting info between proprioception and vision = vision wins.
3. Vision is also very important for balance.
Closed Loop System
1. Tend to be long in duration because you can send error signal to redo the motor program.
2. In closed loop - there is a desired state, but if action state doesn't match desired, error signal will be set and another plan sent out.
Open Loop System
1. Once action starts, nearly impossible to modify in motion.
2. By the time error message sent, the action is already done.
3. You still receive feedback, but don't have the time to change during the actual execution.
4. Example: Throwing football and fumble, but you continue motion of throwing until complete.