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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are mood disorders?




What 3 things characterise them?




What are depressive disorders not the same as?




What's MDD?




Where is it most prevalent?




What's the female:male ratio?




What's the average number of episodes?




Where is it more pronounced?




What is dysthymia?




How does it compare to MDD?




What % of people with dysthymia develop MDD?




What are people with dysthymia more likely to do?




How is their functioning compared to MDD?




Name 4 types of symptoms of these disorders.

When individuals experience mood fluctuations which are extreme deviation from the normal threshold.




1. Dysfunctional.


2. Chronic.


3. Outside socially or culturally accepted norms.




Sorrow and grief-this is normal and an adaptive response to a tragic situation.




Major Depressive Disorder.




US Americans- 16.2% suffer from the disorder.




2:1




4 in a lifetime.




In cultures with traditional gender roles.




Has the same symptoms of MDD.




Less severe.




95%




Attempt suicide and experience hospitalisation.




More impaired in dysthymia than MDD.




1. Emotional.


2. Motivational.


3. Behavioural.


4. Cognitive.

List emotional symptoms.




List motivational symptoms.




List behavioural symptoms.




List cognitive symptoms.




What physical symptoms are there?




What is the main psychological factor?

Sadness and dejection, loss of sense of humour and anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure).




Lack of drive, initiative, spontaneity and social withdrawal.




Less active/productive, slow movement/speech, more time alone (in bed).




Pessimism, feels helpless, hopeless, suicidal thoughts/feelings, negative views on themselves, blames self for unfortunate events, rarely credits self for positive achievements and low performance in memory, attention and reasoning.




Headaches, dizziness, general pain, sleep/appetite disturbance, fatigue.




Negative cognitive style so they have a negative bias in the way they attend to and recall information.

What is the depressive realism hypothesis?




Who proposed the Learned Helplessness theory?




What are the 2 features of this?




What do depressed people seek?




Who did the Hopelessness theory?




Explain this theory.




What is it a subtype of?




Describe symptoms.

Non-depressed people are actually less realistic than depressed people.




Seligman 1974.




1. Experience an inescapable, aversive event which results in a sense of helplessness.


2. A perceived absence of the control over the outcome of a situation so will no longer take action to avoid it.




They have low self-esteem and try and seek confirming negative feedback.




Abramson et al 1989.




A negative life event occurs, the individual gets a stable, global and internal attribution about the event and its meaning for the future on self and cognitive factors such as low self-esteem which equals hopelessness.




Depression.




Sadness, poor concentration, decreased energy/motivation and suicidality.

What is SAD?




Where is it experienced?




Why is it believed to occur?




What is it treated with?




What does this do?




Describe Heliostats, Norway.

Seasonal Affective Disorder which is a winter depression.




2% people in Florida, 10% people in New Hampshire.




Slower metabolism in winter, melatonin is light-sensitive and only released during dark periods which makes you sleepy.




Light therapy, ant-depressants or cognitive behavioural therapy.




Reduces melatonin and increases serotonin.




Giant mirror to magnify sun rays to prevent SAD as prevalence is so high.

Biological Factors of depressive disorders:




What are the heritability estimates?




What can reduce depression?




What can be observed in brain activity?




How does antidepressant drug work (2 things)?




What is the brain circuit involved in unipolar depression?




What other brain areas reduced activation have been found in depression studies?

33-45%




Drugs that affect norepinephrine and serotonin.




Diminished activity in the left PFC, increased activity in the right.




1. Act on serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline by inhibiting their breakdown and blocking their re-uptake.


2. Making more transmitters available for release (more transmitters in the synaptic gap to activate post synaptic receptors).




Subgenual anterior cingulate, dorsal PFC, hippocampus and amygdala.




Left dorsal PFC.

What is experienced in bipolar disorder?




How often do episodes occur?




Which episodes occur more frequently?




What is the lifetime risk?




What is cyclothymic disorder?




Is the illness persistent?




What % relapse within the first 6 months?




What % have at least 1 new episode within 4 years?




What is the suicide attempt rate?




What do people with this disorder have high risk for?

Extreme high and low moods, both phases are disabling.




4 or more per year.




Depressive are 3 times more often than manic.




1.3% for both genders.




Mild form of bipolar where criteria for MDD, manic disorder hasn't been met.




Yes.




24%




77%




25%




Medical problems such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

What is the criteria for a manic episode?




What is the criteria for hypomania episode?




List things that can be observed in mania and hypomania episodes.

Symptoms need to last at least 1 week,require hospitalisation, include psychosis.




Symptoms last for at least 4 days. There is a clear change in functioning observed by others. Impairment is not marked and no psychosis.




Distinctly elevated mood, abnormally increased activity or energy, unusual talkativeness and rapid speech, decreased need for sleep, distractability and these symptoms are present most of the day nearly every day.

Biological Cause of Bipolar Disorder:




What are the 5 sub-categories of biological causes of bipolar disorder?

1. Neurotransmitter activity.


2. Ion activity.


3. Brain structure.


4. Genetic factors.


5. HPA axis.

How can neurotransmitter activity cause bipolar disorder?




How can ion activity cause bipolar?




How can brain structure cause bipolar?




How can genetic factors cause bipolar?




How can HPA axis cause bipolar?

Low/high norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin, however time course is puzzling as the effect of an antidepressant takes 7-14 days.




Often see irregularities in ion transport/neuron membrane deficits.




Smaller basal ganglia and cerebellum, lower grey matter volume, structural abnormalities in the dorsal raphe nucleus.




MZ twins have a 40% likelihood to develop bipolar and close relatives are at heightened risk.




Oversecretion from the adrenal glands is related to more frequent depressive symptoms and people with bipolar disorder show poor regulation of the HPA axis and no suppression of cortisol.