Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Hydrological cycle

Water cycle

What is the main source of moisture for the atmosphere?

The ocean

What are the forms of water in the atmosphere and give examples for each:

Solid: ice; hail


Liquid: water; rain


Gas: water vapor

Evaporation

Change of state of liquid water into water vapor

Sublimation

Change of state of ice into water vapour

What factors make the rate of evaporation greater?

Temperature is high


There is wind


Air is dry

Condensation

Change of state of water vapour into liquid water

Crystallization

Change of state of water vapour into ice

What conditions are necessary for condensation to occur?

There must be evaporation so there is enough water vapour in the air



Atmosphere must be cool



There must be salt crystals and dust in the air

Condensation nuclei

Small dust and salt particles on which water vapour condenses

Why does air cool when evaporation takes places and air warms when condensation occurs?

Because energy is either used and stored as latent heat or released when the water changes state

Precipitation

Moisture which falls from the atmosphere onto the earths surface

Why is the temperature of air important regarding determining humidity?

Warm air can hold more water vapour than cold air can.


Air is saturated when it holds the max amount of water vapour that it can at its existing temp

Why do you find some of the worlds deserts lie next to a cold ocean ?

Because cold air that lies above the ocean can cold very little water vapour because the gas molecules are closer together and there is less space for water vapour

Water vapour capacity

Max amount of water vapour that the air can hold at a particular temp

Actual humidity

The actual amount of water vapour in the air at any one time

Relative humidity

The amount of water vapour in the air relative to the water vapour capacity expresses as a % of the airs water vapour capacity

How do we calculate the percentage of relative humidity ?

Relative humidity:

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

What does the height and vertical extent of clouds depend on?

The temperature of the atmosphere and the vertical air currents

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

What does the height and vertical extent of clouds depend on?

The temperature of the atmosphere and the vertical air currents

What makes a cloud appear grey?

When it is thick and dense


When the sun is shining on the upper part of the cloud so the base is in the shadow

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

What does the height and vertical extent of clouds depend on?

The temperature of the atmosphere and the vertical air currents

What makes a cloud appear grey?

When it is thick and dense


When the sun is shining on the upper part of the cloud so the base is in the shadow

What must happen for condensation to take place so that clouds can form?

The atmosphere must cool to dew point

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

What does the height and vertical extent of clouds depend on?

The temperature of the atmosphere and the vertical air currents

What makes a cloud appear grey?

When it is thick and dense


When the sun is shining on the upper part of the cloud so the base is in the shadow

What must happen for condensation to take place so that clouds can form?

The atmosphere must cool to see point

Dry a diabetic lapse rate

The rate at which air cools as it rises ( until it reaches its condensation level)

Dew point

The temperature at which air is saturated with water vapour

Condensation level

The altitude at which condensation begins and clouds form

What factor affect relative humidity?

The temperature of the atmosphere: this determines the water vapour capacity



How much evaporation and sublimation has taken place: this determines the actual humidity of the atmosphere

How are clouds formed?

When the process of condensation causes minute water droplets and ice crystals to collect in the atmosphere

What does the height and vertical extent of clouds depend on?

The temperature of the atmosphere and the vertical air currents

What makes a cloud appear grey?

When it is thick and dense


When the sun is shining on the upper part of the cloud so the base is in the shadow

What must happen for condensation to take place so that clouds can form?

The atmosphere must cool to see point

Dry a diabetic lapse rate

The rate at which air cools as it rises ( until it reaches its condensation level)

You have learnt that the condensation level is the altitude at which clouds start to form. This condensation level depends on the relative humidity in the air.


What happens if the relative humidity is high or low?

If it it high the air des not need to cool much to reach dew point so the air will not rise far and clouds will form at low altitude



If it is low the air much cool a lot to reach dew point so the air will rise far before clouds form at a high altitude

What are cirrus, stratus and cumulus clouds characteristics?

Cirrus: there are high clouds that are wispy in appearance



Stratus: these clouds are layered in appearance



Cumulus: these clouds look like tufts of cotton wool

Dew

Water which collects on plants and the ground surface.

Dew

Water which collects on plants and the ground surface.

Frost

Ice which collects on plants and the ground surface

Dew

Water which collects on plants and the ground surface.

Frost

Ice which collects on plants and the ground surface

What is the difference between dew and frost?

Dew: the temp is above freezing and water vapour condenses into water. This happens in summer and is good for plants



Frost: temp of dew point is below freezing and the water vapour condenses directly into ice. It occurs in winter and can damage plants

Dew

Water which collects on plants and the ground surface.

Frost

Ice which collects on plants and the ground surface

What is the difference between dew and frost?

Dew: the temp is above freezing and water vapour condenses into water. This happens in summer and is good for plants



Frost: temp of dew point is below freezing and the water vapour condenses directly into ice. It occurs in winter and can damage plants

Snow

Ice crystals which form when water vapour becomes ice

How is snow formed ?

It occurs when it is very cold and the temperature of dew point is below 0'. The water vapour condenses strait into ice crystals which join together to form a snow flake. Often the air below is fairly warm so snowflakes melt and fall to the ground as light rain

How is snow formed ?

It occurs when it is very cold and the temperature of dew point is below 0'. The water vapour condenses strait into ice crystals which join together to form a snow flake. Often the air below is fairly warm so snowflakes melt and fall to the ground as light rain

Hail

Ice which forms when water droplets in a cloud freeze

How is snow formed ?

It occurs when it is very cold and the temperature of dew point is below 0'. The water vapour condenses strait into ice crystals which join together to form a snow flake. Often the air below is fairly warm so snowflakes melt and fall to the ground as light rain

Hail

Ice which forms when water droplets in a cloud freeze

How is hail formed?

Hailstone start up high in swirling up drafts in cumulonimbus clouds and here the winds are very fast and the air has patches of different levels of humidity and amounts of supercooled water droplets.



In these winds there are particles of dust and salt, ice crystals, snow crystals and frozen raindrops. When these collide with supercooled water droplets the water will freeze. This creates a new hailstone of clear ice.



The hailstone may then be blown into another part of the cloud which contains mostly water vapour. Molecules of that water vapour will then sublimate on the hailstone= layer of opaque white ice around hailstone



When the hailstones have grown to heavy to be supportered by the updrfats of the clouds they will fall to the ground and may continue to grow as the fail through cold moist air

How is snow formed ?

It occurs when it is very cold and the temperature of dew point is below 0'. The water vapour condenses strait into ice crystals which join together to form a snow flake. Often the air below is fairly warm so snowflakes melt and fall to the ground as light rain

Hail

Ice which forms when water droplets in a cloud freeze

How is hail formed?

Hailstone start up high in swirling up drafts in cumulonimbus clouds and here the winds are very fast and the air has patches of different levels of humidity and amounts of supercooled water droplets.



In these winds there are particles of dust and salt, ice crystals, snow crystals and frozen raindrops. When these collide with supercooled water droplets the water will freeze. This creates a new hailstone of clear ice.



The hailstone may then be blown into another part of the cloud which contains mostly water vapour. Molecules of that water vapour will then sublimate on the hailstone= layer of opaque white ice around hailstone



When the hailstones have grown to heavy to be supportered by the updrfats of the clouds they will fall to the ground and may continue to grow as the fail through cold moist air

Sleey

Mixture of snow and rain and it is formed from snow partly melting as it calls through Warner air below the cloud

How is snow formed ?

It occurs when it is very cold and the temperature of dew point is below 0'. The water vapour condenses strait into ice crystals which join together to form a snow flake. Often the air below is fairly warm so snowflakes melt and fall to the ground as light rain

Hail

Ice which forms when water droplets in a cloud freeze

How is hail formed?

Hailstone start up high in swirling up drafts in cumulonimbus clouds and here the winds are very fast and the air has patches of different levels of humidity and amounts of supercooled water droplets.



In these winds there are particles of dust and salt, ice crystals, snow crystals and frozen raindrops. When these collide with supercooled water droplets the water will freeze. This creates a new hailstone of clear ice.



The hailstone may then be blown into another part of the cloud which contains mostly water vapour. Molecules of that water vapour will then sublimate on the hailstone= layer of opaque white ice around hailstone



When the hailstones have grown to heavy to be supportered by the updrfats of the clouds they will fall to the ground and may continue to grow as the fail through cold moist air

Sleey

Mixture of snow and rain and it is formed from snow partly melting as it calls through Warner air below the cloud