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23 Cards in this Set

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Organismal Respiration

the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between an organism and its environment

3 Major pathways that require respiration

Aerobic cellular respiration


Anaerobic cellular respiration


Photosynthesis

Aerobic cellular respiration

takes place in mitochondria of eukaryotes, oxygen is the final electron acceptor, and carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste product

Anaerobic cellular respiration

takes place in the cytoplasm of some bacteria, nitrogen or sulfate is the final electron acceptor. High oxygen levels may be toxic

Photosynthesis

takes place in chloroplasts of plants, algae and some bacteria, requires CO2 to produce O2

4 Respiratory surfaces

Body surface


Tracheal tubes


Gills


Lungs

Gills

Moist, thin structures that extend from the body surface- the outer surface is exposed to water, the inner side is exposed to networks of blood vessles

Organisms with gills

some aquatic mollusks, crustaceans (crabs), fishes, and amphibians

Body Surface gas exchange

gas exchange occurs through the entire body surface in small animals with high surface area-to-volume ratios and low metabolic rates.

Lungs

sac shaped organs that include a network of interior tubes and tissues designed to facilitate exchange of gases with the blood

Pleural membrane

continuous sac that encloses the lung

Pleural cavity

provides lubrication between the lungs and the chest wall

Breathing

the mechanical process of moving air from the environment into the lungs

Thoracic cavity

the body cavity in which the lungs are located

Intercostal muscles

run along the ribs, defining the sides of the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

the bottom of the thoracic cavity that adjust the size of the thoracic cavity for inhaling and exhaling

Epiglottis

a lid-like cartilaginous structure that covers the entrance to the larynx and separates it from the pharynx

Pathway of air

Nasal cavity > Pharynx > *over the Epiglottis* > Trachea > Bronchus > Bronchioles > Alveoli and back..

Inhaling

diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract; the size of the cavity increases, allowing lungs to expand

Exhaling

diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, the cavity volume decreases as the lungs deflate

Respiratory pigments

combine reversibly with oxygen and greatly increase the capacity of blood to transport oxygen

Hemoglobin

iron-containing protein found in red blood cells of vertebrates and some invertebrates

Oxyhemoglobin

When an oxygen molecule attaches to the iron atom in each heme