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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The two general approaches used in modern hydroelectric power generation are

impoundment and run-of-river


reaction responsible for the release of energy in traditional nuclear power plants

Negative effects of large hydroelectric dams

alteration of river flow and sedimentation

Wind energy

no negative environmental impacts

nergy is generated in nuclear power plants by

bombarding fissionable atoms with neutrons

Offshore locations for wind farms are considered to be desirable, mainly because

wind speeds are higher and turbulence is lower than on land

What is the main energy source for electricity generation in Ontario?


Industrial ecology

taking a systems approach to the design of industrial systems, in order to reduce resource inputs, minimize physical inefficiencies, reduce, waste, and maximize economic efficiency

Largest source of unregulated hazardous waste


Most challenging environmental problem associated with e-waste

heavy metals

Clay chosen for landfill sites

Blocks the migration of fluids, and scavenges (or, technically, adsorbs) some contaminants from the leachate.

Methane gas is naturally emitted from landfills because

generated during the process of biodegradation of organic matter

Surface impoundment is an approach that is used mainly for the disposal of

liquid hazardous waste


substances that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue e.g. lead

Acute toxicity

exhibited immediately or very shortly after exposure to a toxic substance


build up of materials in a body

most likely to show a "U"-shaped dose-response curve

Vitamin A

physical hazard, but it is also a cultural hazard



a substance that causes damage and changes to DNA

In the process of bioaccumulation,

an organism takes up a contaminant at a rate that is higher than the rate at which it can excrete the contaminant

Why do forests have more concentration of tropospheric ozone than nearby urban regions

Ozone and its precursor compounds travel can to a forest from an upwind city.

installing flat-plate solar collectors

not a passive solar approach


an approach to hydroelectric power generation that, instead of relying on large dams and reservoirs, involves diverting a portion of the water flow to run a turbine

GSHPs (ground source heat pumps)

take advantage of the temperature difference between the surface and the subsurface

Biomass energy

can be harvested from many different sources

Nuclear fusion

difficult to achieve at reasonably low temperatures and pressures

In the past 100 years, packaging

incorporated more synthetic materials

classifying waste by source

waste managers regulate the activities that generate waste, and control the amount and type of waste coming from each source.

lifecycle analysis

procedures for compiling and examining the inputs and outputs of materials and energy and the associated environmental impacts

Surface impoundment

liquid hazardous waste

Most widespread and problematic problems associated with municipal sewage outfalls


One gram of a contaminant in 109 grams of water would be equivalent to

1 ppb

The book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962), often credited with kick-starting the modern environmental movement, was about

the impacts of DDT and other persistent toxic chemicals on wildlife, especially song birds


an agent that transfers a pathogen to a host