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717 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
suppression or deficiency of the immune system caused by exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus.
ACROMEGALY (ak-ro-MEG-ah-le):
enlargement of extremities as a result of thickening of bones and soft tissues; caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland (after completion of puberty).
sharp, sudden, and intense for a short period of time.
ADENITIS (ad-en-NI-tis):
inflammation of a gland.
ADENOCARCINOMA. (ah-deh-no-kar-sih-NO-mah):
cancerous tumor derived from glandular cells.
ADENOIDS (AD-eh-noidz):
enlarged lymphatic tissue in the upper part of the throat near the nasal passageways.
ADENOIDECTOMY (ah-deh-noyd-EK-to-me):
removal of adenoids.
ADENOMA (ah-deh-NO-mah):
benign tumor of glandular cells.
ADENOPATHY (ah-deh-NOP-ah-the):
disease of glands. Often this term means enlargement of lymph nodes (which are not true glands, but collections of lymphatic tissue).
ADNEXA UTERI (ad-NEKS-ah U-ter-i):
accessory structures of the uterus (ovaries, and fallopian tubes).
outermost part of the adrenal gland. The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids (cortisone).
ADRENAL GLANDS (ah-DRE-nal glanz):
two endocrine glands, each above a kidney. The adrenal glands produce hormones such as adrenalin (epinephrine) and hydrocortisone (cortisol).
ADRENALECTOMY (ah-dre-nal-EK-to-me):
removal (excision) of adrenal glands.
ADRENOPATHY (ah-dre-NOP-a-the):
disease of adrenal glands.
AIR SACS (ayr-saks):
thin-walled sacs within the lung. Inhaled oxygen passes into the blood from the sacs, and carbon dioxide passes out from the blood into the sacs to be exhaled.
ALBUMINURIA (al-bu-men-U-re-ah):
albumin (protein) in the urine; indicating malfunction of the kidney.
ALLERGIST (AL-er-jist):
medical doctor specializing in identifying and treating abnormal sensitivity to foreign substances such as pollen, dust, foods, and drugs.
ALOPECIA (ah-lo-PE-shah):
loss of hair; baldness.
ALVEOLAR (al-VE-o-lar):
pertaining to air sacs (alveoli) within the lungs.
ALVEOLUS (al-ve-O-Ius):
an air sac within the lung (pl. alveoli).
AMENORRHEA (a-men-o-RE-ah):
absence of menstrual periods.
AMNIOCENTESIS (am-ne-o-sen-TE-sis):
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the amnion (sac surrounding the developing fetus).
ANAL (A-nal):
pertaining to the anus (opening of the rectum to the outside of the body).
LYSIS (ah-NAIL-ih-sis):
separating a substance into its component parts.
ANEMIA (ah-NE-me-ah):
reduced amount of oxygen to body tissues. This may result from deficiencies and abnormalities of red blood cells or loss of blood. Literally, anemia means lacking (AN-) in blood (-EMIA).
ANEMIC (ah-NE-mik):
pertaining to ANEMIA.
ANESTHESIOLOGIST (an-es-the-ze-OL-o-jist):
medical doctor specializing in administering agents capable of bringing about loss of sensation and consciousness.
ANESTHESIOLOGY (an-es-the-ze-OL-o-je):
study of how to administer agents capable of bringing about loss of sensation and consciousness.
ANEURYSM (AN-u-rizm):
localized widening of the wall of an artery, vein, or of the heart. From ANA- meaning "throughout" and EURUS meaning "wide."
ANGINA (an-JI-nah):
sharp pain in the chest resulting from a decrease in blood supply to heart muscle; also called angina pectoris (chest).
ANGIOGRAPHY (an-je-OG-rah-fe):
x-ray recording of blood vessels after contrast is injected.
ANGIOPLASTY (AN-je-o-plas-te):
surgical repair of a blood vessel. A tube (catheter) is placed in a clogged artery and a balloon in the end of the tube is inflated to flatten the clogged material against the wall of the artery. This enlarges the diameter of the artery so that more blood can pass through. Also called balloon angioplasty.
ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (ang-ki-LO-sing spon-dih-LI-tis):
chronic inflammation of the vertebrae (backbones) with stiffening of spinal joints so that movement becomes increasingly painful.
ANKYLOSIS (ang-ki-LO-sis):
stiffening and immobility of a joint due to injury, disease, or surgical procedure.
an irregularity; deviation from the normal. A congenital anomaly (irregularity) is present at birth.
ANTIHYPERTENSIVE (an-ti-hi-per-TEN-siv):
drug that reduces high blood pressure.
ANURIA (an-U-re-ah):
no urine formation by the kidney.
ANUS (A-nus):
opening of the rectum to the surface of the body; solid wastes (feces) leave the body through the anus.
AORTA (a-OR-tah):
largest artery; it leads from the left ventricle of the heart to arteries throughout the body.
AORTIC STENOSIS (a-OR-tik steh-NO-sis):
narrowing of the aorta.
APEX (A-peks):
pointed end of an organ. Plural is apices (A-pih-sez).
APHAKIA (ah-FA-ke-ah):
absence of the lens of the eye.
APNEA (AP-ne-ah):
not (A-) able to breathe (PNEA).
APPENDECTOMY (ap-en-DEK-to-me):
removal of the appendix.
APPENDICITIS (ap-en-dih-SI-tis):
inflammation of the appendix.
APPENDIX (ah-PEN-dikz):
small sac that hangs from the juncture of the small and large intestines in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Its function is unknown.
AREOLA (ah-RE-o-lah):
dark, pigmented area around the nipple of the breast.
abnormal heart rhythm.
ARTERIOLE (ar-TER-e-ol):
a small artery.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS (ar-ter-e-o-skle-RO-sis):
hardening of arteries. The most common form is atherosclerosis, which is hardening of arteries caused by collection of fatty, cholesterol-like deposits (plaque) in arteries.
ARTERY (AR-ter-e):
largest blood vessel. Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
pain in a joint.
inflammation of a joint.
ARTHROCENTESIS (ar-thro-sen-TE-sis):
surgical puncture to remove fluid from a joint.
ARTHROGRAM (AR-thro-gram):
x-ray record of a joint.
disease of joints.
ARTHROSCOPE (AR-thro-skop):
an instrument to examine the inside of a joint.
process of visual examination of a joint.
abnormal condition of a joint.
ASCITES (ah-SI-tez):
abnormal collection of fluid in the abdomen.
ASPHYXIA (as-FIK-se-ah):
deficiency of oxygen in the blood and increase in carbon dioxide in blood and tissues. Major symptom is a complete absence of breathing.
ASTHMA (AZ-mah):
difficult breathing caused by spasm of bronchial tubes or swelling of their mucous membrane lining.
ATELECTASIS (ah-teh-LEK-tah-sis):
collapsed lung (ATEL meaning "incomplete"; -ECTASIS meaning "widening or dilation").
ATHEROSCLEROSIS (ah-theh-ro-skle-RO-sis):
ATRIUM (A-tre-um):
upper chamber of the heart (pl. atria).
ATROPHY (AT-ro-fe):
decrease in size of an organ.
AUDITORY CANAL (AW-dih-to-re kah-NAL):
passageway leading into the ear from the outside of the body.
AUDITORY NERVE (AW-dih-to-re nurve):
carries messages from the inner ear to the brain, making hearing possible.
AURA (AW-rah): a
a strange sensation that often precedes a migraine headache, warning the patient that an attack is beginning.
fluid or material from the ear.
AUTOPSY (AW-top-se):
postmortem examination of organs and tissue of the body to determine cause of death. Also called necropsy. Literally, to see (-OPSY) with one's own (AUTO-) eyes.
AXIAL (AKS-e-al):
pertaining to an axis (a line through the center of a body or about which a structure revolves).
AXILLARY (AKS-ih-lar-e):
pertaining to the armpit or underarm.
BACTERIUM (bak-TE-re-um):
a type of one-celled organism, whose genetic material (DNA) is not organized within a nucleus (pl. bacteria).
BALANITIS (bah-lah-NI-tis):
inflammation of the skin of the glans penis.
BARIUM (BAH-re-um):
substance used as an opaque (x-rays can't pass through it) contrast medium for x-ray examination of the digestive tract.
IUM ENEMA (BAH-re-um EN-eh-mah):
x-ray image of the lower digestive tract after injecting a solution of barium into the rectum.
x-ray image of the upper digestive tract after swallowing a solution of barium.
N PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (be-NIN pro-STAH-tik hi-per-PIA-zeah):
nonmalignant enlargement of prostate gland.
BILATERAL (bi-LAT-er-al):
pertaining to two (both) sides.
BILE (bil):
a yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It breaks up large fat globules and helps the digestion of fats.
BILE DUCT (bil dukt):
tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the intestine.
BILIRUBIN (bil-ih-RU-bin):
a red blood cell pigment excreted with bile from the liver into the intestine.
BIOLOGY (bi-OL-o-je):
study of life.
BIOPSY (BI-op-se): 
a representative sample of tissue for microscopic examination.
BONE (b6n):
hard, rigid type of connective tissue that makes up most of the skeleton. It is composed of calcium salts.
soft, sponge-like material in the inner part of bones. Blood cells are made in the bone marrow.
BRADYCARDIA (bra-de-KAR-de-ah):
slow heartbeat.
BRAIN (bran):
organ in the head that controls the activities of the body
BREAST (brest):
one of two glandular organs in front of the chest. The breasts produce milk after childbirth.
one of two tubes that carry air from the windpipe to the lungs. Also called a bronchus (pl. bronchi).
small bronchial tube
BRONCHIOLITIS (brong-ke-o-LI-tis):
inflammation of bronchioles.
BRONCHITIS (brong-KI-tis):
inflammation of bronchial tubes.
instrument to visually examine bronchial tubes.
BRONCHOSCOPY (bron-KOS-ko-pe):
visual examination of bronchial tubes by passing an endoscope through the trachea (windpipe) into the bronchi.
BURSA (BUR-sah):
sac of fluid near a joint; pl. bursae (BUR-see).
CALCANEUS (kal-KA-ne-us):
heel bone.
CALCULUS (KAL-ku-lus):
a stone; pl. calculi (KAL-ku-1i).
CAPILLARY (KAP-il-lar-e):
smallest blood vessel (pl. capillaries).
an odorless, colorless gas formed in tissues and eliminated by the lungs.
CARCINOMA (kar-sih-NO-mah):
cancerous tumor. Carcinomas form in epithelial tissue, which line the internal organs as well as cover the outside of the body.
CARDIAC (KAR-de-ak):
pertaining to the heart.
CARDIOLOGIST (kar-de-OL-o-jist):
physician specializing in the study of the heart and heart disease.
CARDIOLOGY (kar-de-OL-o-je):
study of the heart.
CARDIOMEGALY (kar-de-o-MEG-ah-le):
enlargement of the heart.
CARDIOMYOPATHY (kar-de-o-mi-OP-ah-the):
disease of heart muscle.
specialist in performing surgery on the heart and blood vessels.
wrist bones.
a group of symptoms resulting from compression of the median nerve in the wrist. Symptoms include tingling, pain, and burning sensations in the hand and wrist.
CARTILAGE (KAR-tih-lij):
flexible, fibrous connective tissue, found attached to bones and at the ends of bones at the joints.
CATARACT (KAT-ah-raht):
clouding of the lens of the eye.
CAT SCAN (kat scan):
computerized axial tomography. See CT SCAN.
CELL (sel),:
smallest unit or part of an organ.
CELLULITIS (sel-u-LI-tis):
inflammation of the skin; marked by swelling, redness, and pain and caused by bacterial infection.
CEPHALGIA (seh-FAL-je-ah):
headache. Shortened form of cephalalgia.
CEPHALIC (seh-FAL-ik):
pertaining to the head.
CEREBELLAR (ser-eh-BEL-ar):
pertaining to the cerebellum.
CEREBELLUM (ser-eh-BEL-um):
lower, back part of the brain that coordinates muscle movement and balance.
CERVICAL (SER-vi-kal):
pertaining to the neck of the body or the neck (cervix) of the uterus.
seven backbones in neck region.
CERVICAL VERTEBRA (SER-vi-kal VER-teh-brah):
a backbone in the neck.
CERVIX (SER-viks):
the lower, neck-like portion of the uterus opening into the vagina.
CESAREAN SECTION (seh-ZAR-re-an SEK-shun):
surgical incision into the uterus to remove the fetus at birth.
CHEMOTHERAPY (ke-mo-THER-ah-pe):
treatment with drugs; most often used in treatment for cancer.
CHOLECYSTECTOMY (ko-le-sis-TEK-to-me):
removal of the gallbladder.
CHOLEDOCHOTOMY (ko-led-o-KOT-o-me):
incision of the common bile duct.
CHOLELITHIASIS (ko-le-lih-THI-ah-sis):
abnormal condition of gallstones.
CHONDROMA (kon-DRO-mah):
benign tumor of cartilage.
lasting over a long period of time.
chronic limitation in airflow into and out of the lungs; includes chronic bronchitis, ASTHMA, and EMPHYSEMA.
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM (SER-ku-lah-tor-e SIS-tem):
organs (heart and blood vessels) that carry blood throughout the body.
CIRRHOSIS (seh-RO-sis):
liver disease with deterioration of liver cells; often caused by alcoholism and poor nutrition.
CLAVICLE (K1AV-ih-kuh1):
collar bone.
pertaining to the bedside or clinic; involving patient care.
COCCYGEAL (kok-sih-JE-al):
pertaining to the tailbone (coccyx).
COCCYGEAL REGION (kok-sih-JE-al RE-jin):
four fused (joined together) bones at the base of the spinal column (backbone).
COCCYX (KOK-siks):
COLITIS (ko-LI-tis):
inflammation of the colon (large intestine).
COLON (KO-lon):
large intestine (bowel).
COLONIC POLYPOSIS (ko-LON-ik pol-ih-PO-sis):
growths or masses protruding from the mucous membrane lining the colon.
COLONOSCOPY (ko-lon-OS-ko-pe):
visual examination of the colon.
physician specializing in operating on the colon and rectum.
COLOSTOMY (ko-LOS-to-me): 
artificial opening of the colon to the outside of the body.
COLPOSCOPY (kol-POS-ko-pe):
visual examination of the vagina and cervix.
traumatic injury to the brain resulting from a blow to the head.
CONGENITAL ANOMALY (con-JEN-ih-tal ah-NOM-ah-le):
the heart is unable to pump the required amount of blood resulting in inadequate oxygen to body cells.
CONIZATION (ko-nih-ZA-shun):
removal of a wedge-shaped piece (cone) of tissue from the cervix as diagnosis and treatment of early cancer of the cervix.
CONJUNCTIVA (kon-junk-TI-vah):
thin protective membrane over the front of the eye and attached to the eyelids.
CONJUNCTIVITIS (kon-junk-ti-VI-tis
inflammation of the CONJUNCTIVA.
fibrous tissue that supports and connects internal organs, bones, and walls of blood vessels.
CORIUM (KOR-e-um):
middle layer of the skin below the epidermis; DERMIS.
CORNEA (KOR-ne-ah):
transparent layer over the front of the eye. It bends light to focus it on sensitive cells (retina) at the back of the eye.
CORONAL PLANE (kor-0-nal playn):
CORONARY (KOR-on-ary):
pertaining to the heart. Coronary arteries branch from the aorta (largest artery) to bring oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
CORTEX (KOR-teks):
outer part of an organ; pl. cortices (KOR-teh-sez).
CORTISOL (KOR-tih-sol):
anti-inflammatory hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex.
COSTOCHONDRITIS (kos-to-kon-DRI-tis):
inflammation of a rib and its cartilage.
COSTOCHONDRAL (kos-to-KON-dral):
pertaining to a rib and its cartilage.
the space surrounded by the skull and containing the brain.
CRANIOTOMY (kra-ne-OT-o-me):
incision into the skull.
CRANIUM (KRA-ne-um):
CREATININE (kre-AT-tih-nin):
nitrogen-containing waste that is removed from the blood by the kidney and excreted in urine.
CROHN'S DISEASE (kron dih-zes):
inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract marked by bouts of diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and fever. Along with ulcerative colitis, it is a type of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE.
CRYPTORCHISM (kript-OR-kism):
undescended (CRYPT- means "hidden") testicle. The testicle is not in the scrotal sac at birth.
computed tomography. A series of x-ray images that show organs in cross-section (transverse view). Also called a CAT scan.
symptoms produced by an excess of cortisol from the adrenal cortex; marked by moon face, fatty swellings, and weakness.
CYSTITIS (sis-TI-tis):
inflammation of the urinary bladder.
instrument (endoscope) to view the urinary bladder
CYSTOSCOPY (sis-TOS-ko-pe):
visual examination of the urinary bladder
CYTOLOGY (si-TOL-o-je):
study of cells
removal of diseased tissue from the skin
DEMENTIA (deh-MEN-shah):
loss of memory and mental abilities
DERMATITIS (der-mah-TI-tis):
inflammation of the skin.
DERMATOLOGIST (der-mah-TOL-o-jist):
physician specializing in the skin and its diseases
DERMATOSIS (der-mah-TO-sis):
any abnormal condition of the skin.
fibrous middle layer of the skin below the epidermis. It contains nerves and blood vessels, hair roots, oil and sweat glands; CORIUM.
DIABETES MELLITUS (di-ah-BE-tez MEL-Ii-tus):
disorder marked by deficient or lack of INSULIN in the blood. This causes sugar to remain in the blood rather than entering cells. Named from a Greek word meaning "siphon," through which water passes easily, one symptom of diabetes is frequent urination (polyuria). Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus often affects children and requires injections of insulin. Type II or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus occurs when insulin is not adequately or appropriately secreted. Type II diabetes has a tendency to develop later in life (adult-onset).
DIAGNOSIS (di-ag-NO-sis):
complete knowledge of patient's condition (pl. diagnoses).
DIALYSIS (di-AL-ih-sis):
complete separation (-LYSIS) of wastes (urea) from the blood when the kidneys fail. See also HEMODIALYSIS and PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
DIAPHRAGM (DI-ah-fram):
muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen.
DIARRHEA (di-ah-RE-ah):
Discharge of watery wastes from the COLON.
organs ingest and digest food, break it down, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates solid waste product.  This process begins in the mouth and ends at the anus.
DILATION (di-IIA-shun):
widening, dilatation
DILATION AND CURETTAGE (di-IIA-shun and kur-eh-TAJ):
widening of the opening to the cervix and scraping (curettage) of the inner lining of the uterus; D&C.
a piece of cartilage that is between each backbone.
DIURETICS (di-u-RET-iks):
drugs that cause kidneys to allow more fluid (as urine) to leave the body; used to treat HYPERTENSION. DI- (from DIA-) means "complete" and UR- means urine.
DIVERTICULUM (di-ver-TIK-u-lum):
a small pouch or sac created by a herniation of a mucous membrane lining (often in the intestines) (pl. diverticula).
DIVERTICULOSIS (di-ver-tik-u-LO-sis):
abnormal condition of small pouches in the lining of the intestines.
DUODENAL (do-o-DE-nal):
pertaining to the duodenum
DUODENUM (do-o-DE-num):
first part of the small intestine
DYSMENORRHEA (dis-men-o-RE-ah):
painful menstrual flow.
DYSPEPSIA (dis-PEP-se-ah):
painful (DYS-) digestion (-PEPSIA).
DYSPHASIA (dis-FA-zhah):
difficult (impairment of) speech.
DYSPLASIA (dis-PLA-zhah):
abnormal development or formation of cells. Normal cells change in size, shape, and organization.
DYSPNEA (disp-NE-ah):
painful (labored, difficult) breathing (-PNEA).
DYSURIA (dis-U-re-ah):
painful or difficult urination.
organ that receives sound waves and transmits them to nerves leading to the brain.
membrane separating outer and middle part of the ear; tympanic membrane.
development of the fetus in a place other than the uterus. The fallopian tubes are the most common ectopic site.
EDEMA (eh-DE-mah):
swelling in tissues; often caused by retention (holding back) of fluid and salt by the kidneys
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (e-lek-tro-KAR-de-o-gram):
record of the electrical activity in the heart.
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (e-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-gram):
record of the electrical activity in the brain
EMBRYO (EM-bre-o):
a new organism in the earliest stage of development. At the end of the second month of pregnancy, the developing baby is called a FETUS
care of patients requiring immediate action.
EMPHYSEMA (em-fih-SE-mah):
a lung disorder in which air becomes trapped in the air sacs and bronchioles, making breathing difficult. Marked by mucus accumulation and loss of elasticity in lung tissue.
ENCEPHALITIS (en-sef-ah-LI-tis):
inflammation of the brain.
ENCEPHALOPATHY (en-sef-ah-LOP-ah-the):
disease of the brain.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS (EN-do-krin glanz):
organs that produce (secrete) hormones.
endocrine glands. Examples of endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands and the pancreas.
ENDOCRINOLOGIST (en-do-krih-NOL-o-jist):
specialist in the study of endocrine glands and their disorders.
ENDOCRINOLOGY (en-do-krih-NOL-o-je):
ENDOMETRIOSIS (en-do-me-tre-0-sis):
an abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue from the inner lining of the uterus is found outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic cavity.
ENDOMETRIUM (en-do-ME-tre-um):
inner lining of the uterus.
ENDOSCOPE (EN-do-skop):
instrument to view a hollow organ or body cavity; a tube fitted with a lens system that allows viewing in different directions.
ENDOSCOPY (en-DOS-ko-pe):
process of viewing the inside of hollow organs or cavities by using an endoscope.
ENTERITIS (en-teh-RI-tis):
inflammation of the small intestine.
EPIDERMIS (ep-i-DER-mis):
the outer (EPI-) layer of the skin (-DERMIS).
EPIDURAL HEMATOMA (ep-ih-DUR-al he-mah-TO-mah):
mass of blood above the dura mater (outermost layer of membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
EPIGLOTTIS (ep-ih-GLOT-tis):
flap of cartilage that covers the mouth of the trachea when swallowing occurs, so that food cannot enter the airway.
EPIGLOTTITIS (ep-ih-glo-TI-tis):
inflammation of the EPIGLOTTIS.
EPILEPSY (ep-ih-LEP-se):
abnormal electrical activity in the brain results in sudden, fleeting disturbances in nerve cell functioning. An attack of epilepsy is called a SEIZURE.
EPITHELIAL (ep-ih-THE-le-al):
pertaining to skin cells. This term originally described cells upon (EPI-) the breast nipple (THELI-). Now, it indicates all cells lining the inner part of internal organs as well as covering the outside of the body.
red blood cell.
ERYTHROCYTOSIS (e-rith-ro-si-TO-sis):
abnormal condition (increase in number) of red blood cells.
ERYTHROMYCIN (e-rith-ro-MI-sin):
an antibiotic that is produced from a red (ERYTHR/0) mold (-MYCIN).
ESOPHAGEAL (e-sof-ah-JE-al):
pertaining to the esophagus
EUSTACHIAN TUBE (u-STA-she-an tub):
channel connecting the middle part of the ear with the throat.
to cut out; remove; resect
EXOCRINE GLANDS (EK-so-krin glanz):
produce (secrete) chemicals that leave the body through tubes (ducts). Examples are tear, sweat, and salivary glands.
enlargement of the thyroid gland accompanied by high levels of thyroid hormone in the blood and protrusion of the eyeballs (EXOPHTHALMOS).
abnormal protrusion of eyeballs; usually caused by HYPERTHYROIDISM.
EXTRAHEPATIC (eks-tra-heh-PAT-ik):
pertaining to outside the liver.
EXTRAPULMONARY (eks-trah-PUL-mo-nah-re):
outside the lungs.
EYE (i):
organ that receives light waves and transmits them to the brain.
FALLOPIAN TUBES (fah-LO-pe-an tubz):
two tubes that lead from the ovaries to the uterus. They transport egg cells to the uterus; also called uterine tubes.
primary care of all members of the family on a continuing basis.
postgraduate training for doctors in specialized fields. The training may include CLINICAL and RESEARCH (laboratory) work.
organs that produce (ovary) and transport (FALLOPIAN TUBES) egg cells and secrete female hormones (ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE). The system includes the UTERUS, where the embryo and fetus grow.
FEMUR (FE-mer): 
bone in thigh
FETUS (FE-tus):
unborn infant in the uterus after the second month of pregnancy.
FIBRILLATION (fih-brih-LA-shun):
rapid, irregular, involuntary muscular contraction. Atrial and ventricular fibrillation are cardiac (heart) ARRHYTHMIAS.
FIBROIDS (Fl-broydz):
benign growth of muscle tissue in the uterus.
FIBULA (FIB-u-lah):
smaller lower leg bone.
FIXATION (fik-SA-shun):
the act of holding, sewing, or fastening a part in a fixed position.
rapid, but regular abnormal heart muscle contraction. Atrial and ventricular flutters are heart ARRHYTHMIAS.
breaking of a bone.
pertaining to the front; anterior.
an imaginary line that divides an organ or the body into a front and back portion; coronal plane.
sac below the liver; stores bile and delivers it to the small intestine.
benign cyst near a joint (wrist); also, a group of nerve cells; pl. ganglia (GANG-le-ah).
stomach pain.
excision (removal) of the stomach.
pertaining to the stomach.
GASTRITIS (gas-TRI-tis):
inflammation of the stomach.
GASTROENTERITIS (gas-tro-en-teh-RI-tis):
inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
GASTROENTEROLOGIST (gas-tro-en-ter-OL-o-jist):
specialist in the treatment of stomach and intestinal disorders
GASTROENTEROLOGY (gas-tro-en-ter-OL-o-je):
study of the stomach and intestines.
GASTROJEJUNOSTOMY (gas-tro-jeh-ju-NOS-to-me):
new surgical opening between the stomach and the jejunum (second part of the small intestine).
instrument to view the stomach. It is passed down the throat and esophagus into the stomach
visual examination of the stomach.
incision of the stomach.
specialist in the treatment of diseases of old age.
GERIATRICS (jer-e-AH-triks):
treatment of disorders of old age.
a group of cells that secrete chemicals to the outside of the body (EXOCRINE GLANDS) or directly into the bloodstream (ENDOCRINE GLANDS
GLAUCOMA (glaw-KO-mah):
increase of fluid pressure within the eye; fluid is formed more rapidly than it is removed. The increased pressure damages sensitive cells in the back of the eye and vision is disturbed.
GLIOBLASTOMA (gli-o-blas-TO-mah):
a malignant brain tumor composed of immature (-BLAST) neuroglial (supportive nervous tissue) cells.
GLYCOSURIA (gli-ko-SU-re-ah):
abnormal condition of sugar in the urine.
enlargement of the thyroid gland.
GOUTY ARTHRITIS (gowti arth-RI-tis):
deposits of uric acid crystals in joints and other tissues causing swelling and inflammation of joints. Also called gout.
GRAVES' DISEASE (gravs dih-ZEZ):
GYNECOLOGIST (gi-neh-KOL-o-jist):
specialist in medical and surgical treatment of female disorders.
GYNECOLOGY (gi-neh-KOL-o-je):
study of female disorders.
HAIR FOLLICLE (hahr FOL-ih-kl):
a pouch-like depression in the skin in which a hair develops.
HAIR ROOT (hahr root):
part of the hair from which growth occurs.
HEART (hart):
hollow, muscular organ in the chest; pumps blood throughout the body.
HEMATEMESIS (he-mah-TEM-eh-sis):
vomiting (-EMESIS) blood (HEMAT/0) from stomach.
HEMATOLOGIST (he-mah-TOL-o-jist):
specialist in blood and blood disorders.
HEMATOMA (he-mah-TO-mah):
mass or collection of blood under the skin; commonly called a bruise or black-and-blue mark.
HEMATURIA (he-mah-TUR-e-ah):
abnormal condition of blood in the urine.
HEMIPLEGIA (hem-ih-PLE-jah):
paralysis of one side of the body.
HEMODIALYSIS (he-mo-di-AL-ih-sis):
use of a kidney machine to filter blood to remove waste materials, such as urea. Blood leaves the body, enters the machine, and is carried back to the body through a catheter (tube).
HEMOGLOBIN (HE-mo-glo-bin):
oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells.
HEMOPTYSIS (he-MOP-tih-sis):
spitting up (-PTYSIS) blood (HEMO) from lungs.
bursting forth of blood.
HEMOTHORAX (he-mo-THOR-aks):
collection of blood in the chest (pleural cavity).
HEPATIC (heh-PAT-ik):
pertaining to the liver.
HEPATITIS (hep-ah-TI-tis):
inflammation of the liver. Viral hepatitis is an acute infectious disease caused by at least three different viruses: hepatitis A, B, and C viruses.
HEPATOMA (hep-ah-TO-mah):
tumor (malignant) of the liver; hepatocellular carcinoma.
HEPATOMEGALY (hep-ah-to-MEG-ah-le):
enlargement of the liver.
HERNIA (HER-ne-ah):
bulge or protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall that usually contains it. In an INGUINAL hernia, part of the wall of the abdomen weakens and the intestine bulges out or into the SCROTAL sac (in males).
HIATAL HERNIA (hi-A-tal HER-ne-ah):
upward protrusion of the stomach into the lower part of the esophagus.
malignant tumor of lymph nodes
chemical made by a gland and sent directly into the bloodstream, not to the outside of the body. ENDOCRINE GLANDS produce hormones.
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (U-man im-u-no-deh-FISH-en-se VIrus):
infects white blood cells (T cell lymphocytes) causing damage to the patient's immune system. HIV is the cause of AIDS.
HUMERUS (HU-mer-us):
upper arm bone.
HYDROCELE (HI-dro-sel):
swelling of the SCROTUM caused by a collection of fluid within the outermost covering of the TESTIS
HYPERGLYCEMIA (hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah):
higher than normal levels of sugar in the blood.
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM (hi-per-par-ah-THI-royd-ism):
higher than normal levels of parathyroid hormone in the blood.
HYPERTENSION (hi-per-TEN-shun):
high blood pressure. Essential hypertension has no known cause, but contributing factors are age, obesity, smoking, and heredity. Secondary hypertension is a symptom of other disorders such as kidney disease.
HYPERTHYROIDISM (hi-per-THI-royd-izm):
excessive activity of the thyroid gland, excessive secretion of thyroid hormone.
HYPERTROPHY (hi-PER-tro-fe):
enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part of the body due to an increase in size of individual cells.
HYPODERMIC (hi-po-DER-mik):
pertaining to under or below the skin.
HYPOGLYCEMIA (hi-po-gli-SE-me-ah):
lower than normal blood sugar levels.
HYPOPHYSEAL (hi-po-FIZ-e-al):
pertaining to the pituitary gland.
HYPOPITUITARISM (hi-po-pi-TU-ih-tah-rizm):
decrease or stoppage of hormonal secretion by the pituitary gland.
HYPOTENSIVE (hi-po-TEN-siv):
pertaining to low blood pressure or to a person with abnormally low blood pressure.
HYPOTHYROIDISM (hi-po-THI-royd-izm):
lower than normal activity of the thyroid glan, inadequate secretion of thyroid hormone.
HYSTERECTOMY (his-teh-REK-to-me):
excision of the uterus, either through the abdominal wall (abdominal hysterectomy) or through the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy).
IATROGENIC (i-ah-tro-JEN-ik):
any adverse condition induced as a result of medical treatment.
ILEOSTOMY (il-e-OS-to-me):
artificial opening of the ileum (third part of the small intestine) to the outside of the body
ILEUM (IL-e-um):
third part of the small intestine
ILIUM (IL-e-um):
side, high portion of the hipbone (pelvis).
cutting into the body or into an organ
area of dead tissue caused by decreased blood flow to that part of the body
physician who treats disorders caused and spread by microorganisms such as bacteria.
INFILTRATE (IN-fil-trat):
material that accumulates in an organ; often describes solid material and fluid collection in the lungs.
disorder of the small and large intestines marked by bouts of diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and fever; includes CROHN'S DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS
INGUINAL (ING-gwi-nal):
pertaining to the groin area.
INSULIN (IN-su-lin):
hormone produced by the pancreas and released into the bloodstream
branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis of disorders and treatment with drugs.
INTERVERTEBRAL (in-ter-VER-teh-bral):
pertaining to lying between two backbones. A disk (disc) is an intervertebral structure
INTRA-ABDOMINAL (in-trah-ab-DOM-ih-nal):
pertaining to within the abdomen.
INTRAUTERINE (in-trah-U-ter-in):
pertaining to within the uterus.
INTRAVENOUS (in-trah-VE-nus):
pertaining to within a vein.
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM (in-trah-VEN-nus PI-eh-lo-gram):
x-ray record of the kidney (PYEL/O means renal pelvis) after contrast is injected into a vein.
IRIS (I-ris):
colored (pigmented) portion of the eye.
ISCHEMIA (is-KE-me-ah):
deficient blood flow to a part of the body, caused by narrowing or obstruction of blood vessels.
JEJUNUM (jeh-JE-num):
second part of the small intestine.
JOINT (joynt):
space where two or more bones come together (articulate).
one of two organs behind the abdomen that produces urine by filtering wastes from the blood.
LAPAROSCOPY (lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe):
visual examination of the abdominal cavity. A small incision is made near the navel, and an instrument is inserted to view abdominal organs
LAPAROTOMY (lap-ah-ROT-o-me):
incision into the abdomen. A surgeon makes an incision into the abdominal cavity to examine and operate on its organs.
LARGE INTESTINE (larj-in-TES-tin):
part of the intestine that receives undigested material from the small intestine and transports out of the body; COLON.
LARYNGEAL (lah-rin-JE-al):
pertaining to the larynx (voice box).
LARYNGECTOMY (lah-rin-JEK-to-me):
removal of the larynx (voice box).
LARYNGITIS (lah-rin-JI-tis):
inflammation of the larynx
LARYNGOTRACHEITIS (lah-ring-o-tra-ke-l-tis):
inflammation of the larynx and the trachea (windpipe).
LARYNX (LAR-inks):
voice box; located at the top of the trachea and containing vocal cords.
LATERAL (IAT-er-al):
pertaining to the side.
LEIOMYOMA (li-o-mi-O-mah):
a benign tumor derived from smooth (involuntary) muscle and most often of the uterus (leiomyoma uteri).
LENS (lenz):
structure behind the pupil of the eye; bends light rays so that they are properly focused on the RETINA at the back of the eye.
LESION (LE-zhun):
any damage to a part of the body, caused by disease or trauma
LEUKEMIA (lu-KE-me-ah):
excess numbers of malignant white blood cells in blood and bone marrow.
LIGAMENT (LIG-ah-ment):
connective tissue that joins bones to other bones.
LIGAMENTOUS (lig-ah-MEN-tus):
pertaining to a LIGAMENT
process of crushing a stone in the urinary tract using ultrasonic vibrations.
organ in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen; produces BILE, stores sugar, and produces blood clotting proteins.
LOBE (lob):
part of an organ, especially of the brain, lungs, or glands.
pertaining to the loins; part of the back and sides between the chest and the hip.
pertaining to the backbones that lie between the thoracic (chest) and sacral (lower back) vertebrae.
a backbone in the region between the chest and lower back.
LUNG (lung):
one of two paired organs in the chest through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide leaves the body.
LUNG CAPILLARIES (lung KAP-ih-lar-ez):
tiny blood vessels surrounding lung tissue and through which gases pass into and out of the bloodstream.
LYMPH (limf):
clear fluid that is found in lymph vessels and produced from fluid surrounding cells. Lymph contains white blood cells (lymphocytes) that fight disease.
LYMPHADENECTOMY (limf-ah-deh-NEK-to-me):
removal of LYMPH NODES.
LYMPH NODE (limf nod):
stationary collection of lymph cells; found all over the body.
LYMPHADENOPATHY (lim-fad-eh-NOP-ah-the):
disease of lymph nodes (glands).
LYMPHANGIOGRAM (lim-FAN-je-o-gram):
x-ray record of lymph vessels after contrast is injected into soft tissue of the foot.
tubes that carry lymph from tissues to the bloodstream (into a vein in the neck region); lymph vessels.
white blood cell that is found within lymph and lymph nodes. T cells and B cells are types of lymphocytes.
LYMPHOPOIESIS (limf-o-POY-e-sis):
formation of lymph.
yellow discoloration of the skin and other tissues. A symptom caused by accumulation of BILIRUBIN (pigment) in the blood.
x-ray record of the breast.
MAMMOGRAPHY (mam-OG-rah-fe):
process of x-ray recording of the breast.
MAMMOPLASTY (MAM-o-plas-te):
surgical repair (reconstruction) of the breast.
MASTECTOMY (mas-TEK-to-me):
removal (excision) of the breast.
MEDIASTINAL (me-de-ah-STI-nal):
pertaining to the MEDIASTINUM.
MEDIASTINUM (me-de-ah-STI-num):
space between the lungs in the chest; contains the heart, large blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, and lymph nodes
pertaining to the inner, or soft part of an organ.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA (meh-DUL-ah ob-lon-GA-tah):
lower part of the brain near the spinal cord; controls breathing and heartbeat.
MELANOMA (meh-lah-NO-mah):
malignant tumor arising from pigmented cells (melanocytes) in the skin; usually developing from a NEVUS (mole).
MENINGITIS (men-in-JI-tis):
inflammation of the meninges (membranes around the brain and spinal cord).
MENORRHAGIA (men-o-RA-je-ah):
excessive bleeding from the uterus during the time of MENSTRUATION.
MENORRHEA (men-o-RE-ah):
normal discharge of blood and tissue from the uterine lining during MENSTRUATION
menstruation; menstrual period.
MENSTRUATION (men-stru-A-shun):
breakdown of the lining of the uterus that occurs every four weeks during the active reproductive cycle of a female.
METACARPALS (met-ah-KAR-palz):
bones of the hand between the wrist bones (carpals) and the finger bones (phalanges)
METASTASIS (meh-TAS-tah-sis):
spread of a cancerous tumor to a distant organ or location; literally means change (META-) of place (-STASIS).
METATARSALS (meh-tah-TAR-sels):
foot bones.
attack of headache; usually on one side of the head, caused by changes in blood vessel size and accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light (photophobia). From the French word migraine, meaning "severe head pain."
MOUTH (mowth):
the opening that forms the beginning of the digestive system.
white blood cell with one large nucleus
MONONUCLEOSIS (mon-o-nu-kle-O-sis):
an acute infectious disease with excess MONOCYTES in the blood. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and transmitted by direct oral (mouth) contact.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MUL-tih-pul skleh-RO-sis):
chronic neurological disease in which there are patches of loss of MYELIN SHEATH (covering neurons) throughout the brain and spinal cord. Weakness, abnormal sensations, incoordination, and speech and visual disturbances are symptoms.
connective tissue that contracts to make movement possible.
MUSCULAR (MUS-ku-lar):
pertaining to muscles.
group of degenerative muscle diseases that cause crippling because muscles are gradually weakened with eventual ATROPHY (shrink).
organs that support the body and allow it to move; muscles, bones, joints, and connective tissues.
MYALGIA (mi-AL-jah):
pain in a muscle or muscles.
MYELIN SHEATH (MI-eh-lin sheat):
fatty covering around part (axon) of some nerve fibers. It insulates and speeds the conduction of nerve impulses.
MYELODYSPLASIA. (mi-eh-lo-dis-PILA-ze-ah):
abnormal development of bone marrow; a premalignant condition leading to leukemia.
MYELOGRAM (MI-eh-lo-gram):
x-ray record of the spinal cord after contrast is injected within the membranes surrounding the spinal cord in the lumbar area of the back.
MYELOGRAPHY (mi-eh-LOG-ra-fe):
process of recording the spinal cord after injection of contrast material.
MYOCARDIAL (mi-o-KAR-de-al):
pertaining to the muscle of the heart.
area of dead tissue in heart muscle; also known as a heart attack or an MI.
MYOMA (mi-O-mah):
tumor (benign) of muscle.
OSTEOMA (os-te-O-mah):
tumor (benign) of bone.
MYOSARCOMA (mi-o-sar-KO-mah):
tumor (malignant) of muscle. SARC- means "flesh," indicating that the tumor is of connective or "fleshy" tissue origin.
MYOSITIS (mi-o-SI-tis):
inflammation of a muscle.
MYRINGOTOMY (mir-in-GOT-o-me):
incision of the eardrum.
pertaining to the breast.
MALIGNANT (mah-LIG-nant):
to become progressively worse; describes cancerous tumors that invade and spread to distant organs.
organs that produce sperm cells and male hormones.
image of the body using magnetic and radio waves. Organs are seen in three planes: frontal (front to back), sagittal (side to side), and transverse (cross-section). Called MRI
NASAL (NA-zel):
pertaining to the nose.
NAUSEA (NAW-se-ah):
an unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen, often leading to vomiting. The term comes from the Greek nausia, meaning "sea sickness
NECROSIS (neh-KRO-sis):
death of cells.
NECROTIC (neh-KRO-tik):
pertaining to death of cells.
NEONATAL (ne-o-NA-tal):
pertaining to new birth; the period of first four weeks after birth.
NEOPLASM (NE-o-plazm):
any new growth of tissue; a tumor.
pertaining to a new growth or NEOPLASM.
removal (excision) of a kidney.
NEPHRITIS (neh-FRI-tis):
inflammation of the kidneys.
NEPHROLITHIASIS (neh-fro-lih-THI-ah-sis):
condition of kidney stones.
specialist in diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases.
study of the kidney and its diseases.
NEPHROPATHY (neh-FROP-ah-the):
disease of the kidney
NEPHROSIS (neh-FRO-sis):
abnormal condition of the kidney. This condition is often associated with a deterioration of kidney tubules.
opening from the kidney to the outside of the body.
organs (brain, spinal cord, and nerves) that transmit electrical messages throughout the body.
NEURAL (NU-ral):
pertaining to nerves.
nerve pain.
NEURITIS (nu-RI-tis):
inflammation of a nerve.
NEUROGLIAL CELLS (nu-ro-GLE-al selz):
supporting structure of nervous tissue in the central nervous system, such as the brain. Examples are astrocytes, microglial, and oligodendroglial cells. These cells are often the source of brain tumors.
NEUROLOGIST (nu-ROL-o-jist):
specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous disorders.
NEUROLOGY (nu-ROL-o-je):
study of the nervous system and nerve disorders.
NEUROPATHY (nu-ROP-ah-the):
disease of nervous tissue.
physician who operates on the organs of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves).
NEUROTOMY (nu-ROT-o-me):
incision of a nerve.
NEVUS (NE-vus):
pigmented lesion on the skin; a mole.
NOCTURIA (nok-TU-re-ah):
excessive urination at night.
NOSE (noz):
structure that is the organ of smell and permits air to enter and leave the body.
NOSOCOMIAL (nos-o-KO-me-al):
pertaining to or originating in a hospital. A nosocomial infection is acquired during hospitalization.
pertaining to pregnancy, labor, and delivery of an infant.
specialist in the delivery of a baby and care of the mother during pregnancy and labor.
OCULAR (OK-u-lar):
pertaining to the eye.
ONCOGENIC (ong-ko-JEN-ik):
pertaining to producing (GEN) tumors.
ONCOLOGIST (ong-KOL-o-jist):
physician specializing in the study and treatment of tumors.
ONCOLOGY (ong-KOL-o-je):
study of tumors.
OOPHORECTOMY (o-of-o-REK-to me):
removal (excision) of an ovary or ovaries
OOPHORITIS (o-of-o-RI-tis):
inflammation of an ovary.
OPHTHALMOLOGIST (of-thal-MOL-o-jist):
specialist in the study of the eye and treatment of eye disorders.
OPHTHALMOLOGY (of-thal-MOL-o-je):
study of the eye; diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders.
OPTIC NERVE (OP-tik nerv):
nerve in the back of the eye that transmits light waves to the brain.
nonmedical specialist in providing eyeglasses by filling prescriptions.
OPTOMETRIST (op-TOM-eh-trist):
nonmedical specialist trained to examine and test eyes and prescribe corrective lenses.
ORAL (OR-al):
pertaining to the mouth.
ORCHIDECTOMY (or-kih-DEK-to-me):
removal (excision) of a testicle or testicles.
ORCHIECTOMY (or-ke-EK-to-me):
removal (excision) of a testicle or testicles.
ORCHIOPEXY (or-ke-o-PEK-se):
surgical fixation of the testicle (testis) into its proper location within the scrotum. This surgery corrects CRYPTORCHISM.
ORCHITIS (or-KI-tis):
inflammation of a testicle.
ORGAN (OR-gan):
an independent part of the body, composed of different tissues working together to do a specific job.
ORTHOPEDIST (or-tho-PE-dist):
specialist in medical and surgical correction of musculoskeletal disorders. This physician was originally concerned with straightening (ORTH/0) bones in the legs of deformed children (PED/0).
OSTEITIS (os-te-I-tis):
inflammation of a bone.
OSTEOARTHRITIS (os-te-o-ar-THRI-tis):
inflammation of bones and joints. This is a disease of older people, marked by stiffness, pain, and degeneration of joints.
OSTEOMYELITIS (os-te-o-mi-eh-LI-tis):
inflammation of bone and bone marrow. This condition is caused by a bacterial infection.
OSTEOPOROSIS (os-te-o-po-RO-sis):
decrease in bone mass with formation of pores or spaces in normally mineralized bone tissue.
OTALGIA (o-TAL-jah):
pain in an ear.
OTITIS (o-TI-tis):
inflammation of an ear.
OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (o-to-lah-rin-GOL-o-jist):
specialist in treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
OVARIAN (o-VAR-e-an):
pertaining to an OVARY or ovaries.
malignant condition of the ovaries.
OVARIAN CYST (o-VAR-e-an sist):
a sac containing fluid or semi-solid material in or on the ovary.
OVARY (0-vah-re):
one of two organs in the female abdomen that produces egg cells and female hormones.
OVUM (O-vum):
an egg cell; pl. ova (o-VAH).
OXYGEN (OK-si-jen):
a colorless, odorless gas that is essential to sustaining life.
PANCREAS (PAN-kre-us):
gland that produces digestive juices (exocrine function), and the hormone INSULIN (endocrine function).
PANCREATECTOMY (pan-kre-ah-TEK-to-me):
removal of the pancreas.
PANCREATITIS (pan-kre-ah-TI-tis):
inflammation of the pancreas.
PARALYSIS (pah-RAL-ih-sis):
loss or impairment of movement in a part of the body.
PARAPLEGIA (par-ah-PLE-jah):
impairment or loss of movement in the lower part of the body, primarily the legs and in some cases bowel and bladder function.
PARATHYROID GLANDS (par-ah-THI-royd glanz):
four endocrine glands behind the thyroid gland. These glands maintain the proper levels of calcium in the blood and bones.
PATELLA (pah-TEL-ah):
PATHOLOGIST (pah-THOL-o-jist):
specialist in the study of disease, by microscopic examination of tissues and cells and autopsy examination.
PATHOLOGY (pah-THOL-o-je):
study of disease
specialist in treatment of childhood diseases.
PEDIATRICS (pe-de-AT-riks):
branch of medicine specializing in treatment of children.
pertaining to the hipbone (pelvis) or the region of the hip.
space contained within the hipbone (front and sides) and the lower part of the backbone (sacrum. and coccyx).
inflammation in the pelvic region.
hip bone. The pelvis is composed of the ilium (upper portion), ischium (lower portion), and the pubis (front portion).
PENICILLIN (pen-in-SIL-in):
substance, derived from certain molds that can destroy bacteria; an ANTIBIOTIC.
PENIS (PE-nis):
external male organ containing the urethra, through which both urine and semen (sperm cells and fluid) leave the body.
sore (lesion) of the mucous membrane lining the first part of the small intestine (duodenum) or lining the stomach.
PERCUTANEOUS (per-ku-TAN-e-us):
pertaining to through the skin.
PERIANAL (per-e-A-nal):
pertaining to surrounding the ANUS.
PERIOSTEUM (per-e-OS-te-um):
membrane that surrounds bone.
PERITONEAL (per-ih-to-NE-al):
pertaining to the PERITONEUM.
PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (per-i-to-NE-al di-AL-ih-sis):
process of removing wastes from the blood by introducing a special fluid into the abdomen. The wastes pass into the fluid from the bloodstream, and then the fluid is drained from the body.
PERITONEUM (per-ih-to-NE-um):
membrane that surrounds the abdomen and holds the abdominal organs in place.
pertaining to under the shoulder bone.
PROTEINURIA (pro-en-U-re-ah):
abnormal condition of protein in the urine (albuminuria).
PSYCHIATRIST (si-KI-ah-trist):
specialist in treatment of the mind and mental disorders.
PSYCHIATRY (si-KI-ah-tre):
treatment (IATR/0) of disorders of the mind (PSYCH/0).
study of the mind; especially in relation to human behavior.
PSYCHOSIS (si-KO-sis):
abnormal condition of the mind; serious mental disorder that involves loss of normal perception of reality; pl. psychoses (si-KO-sez).
PULMONARY (PUL-mo-ner-e):
pertaining to the lungs.
PULMONARY CIRCULATION (PUL-mo-ner-e ser-ku-ILA-shun):
passage of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
PULMONARY EDEMA (PUL-mo-ner-e eh-DE-mah):
abnormal collection of fluid in the lung (within the air sacs of the lung).
physician trained to treat lung disorders.
PUPIL (PU-pil):
black center of the eye through which light enters.
PYELITIS (pi-eh-LI-tis):
inflammation of the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney).
RADIATION ONCOLOGIST (ra-de-A-shun ong-KOL-o-jist):
physician trained in treatment of disease (cancer) using high-energy x-rays or other particles.
RADIOLOGIST (ra-de-OL-o-jist):
physician trained in the use of x-rays to diagnose illness; also includes ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.
RADIOLOGY (ra-de-OL-o-je):
science of using x-rays in the diagnosis of disease.
RADIOTHERAPY (ra-de-o-THER-ah-pe):
treatment of disease (cancer) using high-energy particles, such as x-rays and protons.
RADIUS (RA-de-us):
one of two lower arm bones; on the thumb side of the hand.
excision (resection) of the RECTUM.
hernia (protrusion) of the rectum into the vagina.
end of the colon; delivers wastes (feces) to the anus for elimination.
return of disease after its apparent termination.
lessening of symptoms of a disease.
RENAL (RE-nal):
pertaining to the kidney.
kidneys no longer function.
central section of the kidney, where urine collects.
RESEARCH (RE-surch):
laboratory investigation of a medical problem.
RESECTION (re-SEK-shun):
removal of an organ or a structure.
period of hospital work involving care of patients after completion of four years of medical school.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (RES-pir-ah-tor-e SIS-tem):
organs that control breathing, allowing air to enter and leave the body.
RETINA (RET-ih-nah):
layer of sensitive cells at the back of the eye. Light is focused on the retina and then is transmitted to the optic nerve, which leads to the brain
RETINOPATHY (reh-tih-NOP-ah-the):
disease of the RETINA.
RETROGASTRIC (reh-tro-GAS-trik):
pertaining to behind the stomach
RETROPERITONEAL (reh-tro-per-ih-to-NE-al):
pertaining to behind the PERITONEUM.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (ROO-mah-toyd arth-RI-tis):
chronic inflammatory disease of joints and connective tissue leading to deformed joints.
RHEUMATOLOGIST (roo-mah-TOL-o-jist):
specialist in treatment of diseases of connective tissues, especially joints. RHEUMAT/O comes from the Greek rheuma, meaning "that which flows, as a stream or a river." Inflammatory disorders of joints are often marked by a collection of fluid in joint spaces
SUBTOTAL (sub-TO-tal):
less than total; just under the total amount.
SURGERY (SUR-jer-e):
branch of medicine that treats disease by manual (hand) or operative methods.
RHEUMATOLOGY (roo-mah-TOL-o-je):
branch of medicine dealing with inflammation, degeneration, or chemical changes in connective tissues, such as joints and muscles. Pain, stiffness, or limitations of motion are often characteristics of rheumatologic disorders.
RHINITIS (ri-NI-tis):
inflammation of the nose.
RHINOPLASTY (RI-no-plas-te):
surgical repair of the nose.
RHINORRHEA (ri-no-RE-ah):
discharge from the nose.
RHINOTOMY (ri-NOT-o-me):
incision of the nose.
RIB (rib):
one of 12 paired bones surrounding the chest. Seven ribs (true ribs) attach directly to the breastbone, three (false ribs) attach to the seventh rib, and two (floating ribs) are not attached
SACRAL (SA-kral):
pertaining to the SACRUM.
five fused bones in the lower back, below the lumbar bones and wedged between two parts of the hip (ilium).
SACRUM (SA-krum):
triangular bone in the lower back; below the lumbar bones and formed by five fused bones.
SAGITTAL PLANE (SAJ-ih-tal plan):
an imaginary line that divides an organ or the body into right and left portions.
a cut (section) through the body dividing it into a right and left portion.
SALPINGECTOMY (sal-pin-JEK-to-me):
removal of a fallopian (uterine) tube.
SALPINGITIS (sal-pin-JI-tis):
inflammation of a fallopian (uterine) tube.
SARCOIDOSIS (sahr-koi-DO-sis):
chronic, progressive, disorder of cells in connective tissue, spleen, liver, bone marrow, lungs, and lymph nodes. Small collections of cells (granulomas) form in affected organs and tissues.
SARCOMA (sar-KO-mah):
cancerous (malignant) tumor of connective tissue, such as bone, muscle, fat, or cartilage.
shoulder bone.
white, outer coat of the eyeball.
pertaining to the scrotum.
sac on the outside of the body that contains the testes.
SEBACEOUS GLAND (seh-BA-shus gland):
oil (sebum)-producing gland in the skin.
an act of cutting; segment or subdivision of an organ.
SEIZURE (SE-zhur):
a convulsion (involuntary contraction of muscles) or attack of EPILEPSY. A seizure can also indicate sudden attack or recurrence of a disease.
cup-like depression at the base of the skull; holds the pituitary gland.
SEMEN (SE-men):
fluid composed of sperm cells and secretions from the prostate gland and other male exocrine glands.
SEMINOMA (sem-ih-NO-mah):
malignant tumor of the testis.
SENSE ORGANS (sens OR-ganz):
parts of the body that receive messages from the environment and relay them to the brain so that we see, hear, and feel sensations. Examples of sense organs are the eye, ear, and skin.
pertaining to infection.
SEPTICEMIA (sep-tih-SE-me-ah):
infection in the blood. Septicemia is commonly called blood poisoning and is associated with the presence of bacteria or their poisons in the blood.
SHOCK (shok):
group of symptoms (pale skin, rapid pulse, shallow breathing) that indicate poor oxygen supply to tissue and insufficient return of blood to the heart.
S-shaped lower portion of the colon.
SKIN (skin):
outer covering that protects the body.
SKULL (skul):
bone that surrounds the brain and other organs in the head.
SMALL INTESTINE (smal in-TES-tin):
organ that receives food from the stomach; it is divided into three sections -duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
SONOGRAM (SON-o-gram):
record of sound waves after they bounce off organs in the body; an ULTRASOUND or echogram.
SPERMATOZOON (sper-mah-to-ZO-on):
a sperm cell; pl. spermatozoa (spermah-to-ZO-ah).
space that contains the spinal cord and is surrounded by the backbones.
backbones; vertebrae.
SPINAL CORD (SPI-nal kord):
bundle of nerves that extends from the brain down the back; carries electrical messages to and from the brain.
SPINAL NERVES (SPI-nal nervz):
nerves that transmit messages to and from the spinal cord.
SPLEEN (splen):
organ in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen; stores blood cells and destroys red blood cells while producing white blood cells called LYMPHOCYTES.
SPLENOMEGALY (splehn-o-MEG-ah-le):
enlargement of the spleen.
SPONDYLITIS (spon-dih-LI-tis):
a chronic, serious inflammatory disorder of backbones involving erosion and collapse of vertebrae. See ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS
SPONDYLOSIS (spon-dih-LO-sis):
abnormal condition of a vertebra or vertebrae.
breast bone.
organ that receives food from the esophagus and sends it to the small intestine. Enzymes in the stomach breakdown food particles during digestion.
STOMATITIS (sto-mah-TI-fis):
inflammation of the inside of the mouth.
STROKE (strok):
Trauma to or blockage of blood vessels within the brain, leading to less blood supply to brain tissue. This causes nerve cells in the brain to die and results in loss of function to the part of the body controlled by those nerve cells.
SUBCOSTAL (sub-KOS-tal):
pertaining to below the ribs.
lower layer of the skin composed of fatty tissue.
SUBDURAL HEMATOMA (sub-DUR-al he-mah-TO-mah):
collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the membranes surrounding the brain).
SUBGASTRIC (sub-GAS-trik):
pertaining to below the stomach.
SUBHEPATIC (sub-heh-PAT-ik):
pertaining to under the liver.
SWEAT GLAND (sweht gland):
organ in the skin that produces a watery substance containing salts.
SYNCOPE (SING-kah-pe):
fainting; sudden loss of consciousness.
set of symptoms and signs of disease that occur together to indicate a disease condition.
group of organs working together to do a job in the body. For example, the digestive system includes the mouth, throat, stomach, and intestines, all of which help to bring food into the body, break it down, and deliver it to the bloodstream.
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION (sis-TEM-ik ser-ku-IIA-shun):
the passage of blood from the heart to the tissues of the body and back to the heart.
TACHYCARDIA (tak-eh-KAR-de-ah):
condition of fast, rapid heartbeat.
TACHYPNEA (tak-ip-NE-ah):
condition of rapid breathing.
connective tissue that joins muscles to bones.
TENDINITIS (ten-dih-NI-tis):
inflammation of a tendon.
TENORRHAPHY (ten-OR-ah-fe):
suture of a tendon.
TESTICLE (TES-tih-kl):
TESTICULAR CARCINOMA (tes-TIK-u-lar kar-sih-NO-mah):
malignant tumor originating in a testis. An example of a testicular carcinoma is a seminoma.
one of two paired male sex organs in the scrotal sac. The testes (pl.) produce sperm cells and male hormone (testosterone); also called a testicle.
THORACENTESIS (tho-rah-sen-TE-sis):
surgical puncture of the chest to remove fluid; thoracocentesis.
THORACIC (tho-RA-ik):
pertaining to the chest.
space above the abdomen, containing the heart, lungs, and other organs; the chest cavity.
backbones attached to the ribs and located in the region of the chest, between the neck and the waist.
physician who operates on organs in the chest.
a backbone in the region of the chest.
THORACOTOMY (tho-rah-KOT-o-me):
incision of the chest.
THROAT (throt):
clotting cell; a platelet.
THROMBOSIS (throm-BO-sis):
abnormal condition of clot formation.
blood clot.
THYMOMA (thi-MO-mah):
tumor (malignant) of the thymus gland.
THYMUS GLAND (THI-mus gland):
endocrine gland in the middle of the chest that produces a hormone, thymosin. A much larger gland in children, the thymus aids the immune system by stimulating the production of white blood cells (lymphocytes).
THYROADENITIS (thi-ro-ah-de-NI-tis):
inflammation of the thyroid gland.
THYROIDECTOMY (thi-roy-DEK-to-me):
removal of the thyroid gland.
THYROID GLAND (THI-royd gland):
endocrine gland in the neck that produces hormones, acting on cells throughout the body. The hormones increase the activity of cells by stimulating metabolism and release of energy.
THYROXINE (thi-ROK-sin):
hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; also known as T4,
TIBIA (TIB-e-ah):
larger of the two lower leg bones; shin bone.
TINNITUS (TIN-ih-tus):
a noise in the ears, such as ringing, roaring, or buzzing.
groups of similar cells that work together to do a job in the body; muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and epithelial (skin) tissue.
tiny blood vessels that lie near cells and through whose walls gasses, food, and waste materials pass.
TOMOGRAPHY (to-MOG-rah-fe):
series of x-ray pictures that show an organ in depth by producing images of single tissue planes.
TONSILLECTOMY (ton-sih-LEK-to-me):
removal (excision) of a tonsil or TONSILS.
lymphatic tissue in the back of the mouth near the throat.
tube that carries air from the throat to the BRONCHIAL TUBES; windpipe.
TRACHEOSTOMY (tray-ke-OS-to-me):
artificial opening of the trachea to the outside of the body.
TRACHEOTOMY (tray-ke-OT-o-me):
incision into the trachea.
TRANSABDOMINAL (trans-ab-Dom-ih-nal):
pertaining to across the abdomen.
TRANSGASTRIC (trans-GAS-trik):
pertaining to across the stomach.
TRANSURETHRAL (tran-u-RE-thral):
pertaining to across (through) the urethra. A TURP is a transurethral resection of the prostate by surgery through the urethra.
imaginary line that divides an organ or the body into an upper and lower portion; a cross-sectional view.
TUBERCULOSIS (too-ber-ku-LO-sis):
an infectious, inflammatory disease that commonly affects the lungs, although it can occur in any part of the body. It is caused by the tubercle bacillus (type of bacteria).
TYMPANOPLASTY (tim-pan-o-PIAS-te):
surgical repair of the eardrum.
ULCER (UL-ser):
erosion or defect in the surface of an organ. Ulcers are produced by destruction of tissue.
a recurrent disorder marked by ULCERS in the large bowel. Along with Crohn's disease, this is an INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE with no known etiology (cause).
ULNA (UL-nah):
one of two lower arm bones; on the little finger side of the hand.
ULTRASONOGRAPHY (ul-tra-son-OG-rah-fe):
recording internal body structure using sound waves.
ULTRASOUND (UL-tra-sownd):
sound waves with greater frequency than can be heard by the human ear. This energy is used to detect abnormalities by beaming the waves into the body and recording echoes that reflect off tissues.
UNILATERAL (u-nih-LAT-er-al):
pertaining to one side.
UREA (u-RE-ah):
chief nitrogen-containing waste that the kidney removes from the blood and eliminates from the body in urine.
UREMIA (u-RE-me-ah):
abnormal condition of excessive amounts of UREA in the bloodstream.
URETER (u-RE-ter or U-re-ter):
one of two tubes that lead from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
URETERECTOMY (r-re-ter-EK-to-me):
removal (excision) of a ureter.
URETHRA (u-RE-thrah):
tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. In males, the urethra, which is within the penis, also carries sperm from the VAS DEFERENS to the outside of the body when sperm is discharged (ejaculation).
narrowing of the urethra.
inflammation of the urethra.
URINALYSIS (u-rih-NAL-ih-sis):
examination of urine to determine its contents.
muscular sac that holds urine and then releases it to leave the body through the urethra.
URINARY SYSTEM (UR-in-er-e SIS-tem):
organs that produce and eliminate urine from the body. These organs are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
URINARY TRACT (UR-in-er-e trakt):
tubes/organs that carry urine from the kidney to outside of the body.
URINE (UR -ine): 
liquid waste that is produced by the kidneys, passed through the ureters, stored in the bladder, and released from the body through the urethra.
UROLOGIST (u-ROL-o-jist):
specialist in treatment and surgery on the urinary tract in males and females, and on the reproductive tract in males.
UROLOGY (u-ROL-o-je):
study of the urinary system in males and females and the reproductive tract in males.
UTERINE (U-ter-in):
pertaining to the uterus.
UTERINE TUBES (U-ter-in tubz):
UTERUS (U-ter-us):
muscular organ in a female that holds and provides nourishment for the developing fetus; womb.
VAGINA (vah-JI-nah):
muscular passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body.
VAGINITIS (vah-jih-NI-tis):
inflammation of the vagina.
VARICOCELE (VAR-ih-ko-sel):
swollen, twisted veins within the spermatic cord, above the testes. It produces a swelling in the scrotum that feels like a "bag of worms."
VARIX (VAH-riks):
enlarged, swollen, tortuous vein; pl. varices (VAH-ri-sez).
VAS DEFERENS (vas DEHF-or-enz):
one of two tubes that carry sperm from the testes to the urethra for ejaculation.
VASCULAR (VAS-ku-lar):
pertaining to blood vessels.
VASCULITIS (vas-ku-LI-tis):
inflammation of blood vessels.
VASECTOMY (vas-EK-to-me):
removal of portion of the vas deferens, to interrupt the flow of sperm cells, to prevent pregnancy from occurring.
drug that narrows blood vessels, especially small arteries.
VEIN (van):
blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart from tissues of the body.
one of the two lower chambers of the heart. The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium (upper chamber) and pumps it to the lungs. The left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the body through the aorta.
small vein.
VENULITIS (ven-u-LI-tis):
inflammation of a small vein.
VERTEBRA (VER-teh-brah):
a backbone.
VERTEBRAE (VER-teh-bray):
VERTEBRAL (VER-teh-bral):
pertaining to a backbone.
VESICAL (VES-ih-kal):
pertaining to the urinary bladder (VESIC/0).
VIRUS (VI-rus):
small infectious agent that can reproduce itself only when it is inside another living cell (host).
WOMB (woom):
ABNORMAL (ab-NOR-mal):
pertaining to being away (AB-) from the norm; irregular.
ABDOMINAL (ab-DOM-i-nal):
pertaining to the abdomen.
ABDOMEN (AB-do-men):
space below the chest, containing organs such as the stomach, liver, intestines, and gallbladder. Also called the abdominal cavity, the abdomen lies between the diaphragm and the pelvis (hip bone).
PHARYNGITIS (fah-rin-JI-tis):
inflammation of the pharynx (throat).
PHLEBOTOMY (fleh-BOT-o-me):
incision of a vein
PINEAL GLAND (pi-NE-al gland):
small endocrine gland within the brain; secretes a hormone, melatonin, whose exact function is unclear. In lower animals it is a receptor for light.
double membrane that surrounds the lungs.
PLEURITIS (ploo-RI-tis):
inflammation of the PLEURA.
PNEUMONIA (noo-MO-ne-ah): 
inflammation of the lungs due to infection.
POLYCYTHEMIA (pol-e-si-THE-me-ah):
increase in red blood cells. One form is polycythemia vera, in which the bone marrow produces an excess of erythrocytes.
POLYURIA (pol-e-UR-e-ah):
excessive urination.
POSTPARTUM (post PAR-tum):
after birth.
PRENATAL (pre-NA-tal):
pertaining to before birth.
PROCTOSCOPY (prok-TOS-ko-pe):
inspection of the anus and rectum with a proctoscope (ENDOSCOPE); often done prior to rectal surgery.
falling down, drooping of a part of the body; literally, a sliding (-LAPSE) forward (PRO-).
PROSTATECTOMY (pros-tah-TEK-to-me):
removal of the prostate gland.
organ behind the mouth that receives swallowed food and delivers it into the esophagus. The pharynx (throat) also receives air from the nose and passes it to the trachea (windpipe).
pretaining to the diaphragm
PITUITARY GLAND (pi-TU-ih-tar-e gland):
organ at the base of the brain that secretes hormones. These hormones enter the blood to regulate other organs and other endocrine glands. Known as the master gland.
collection of fluid between the double membrane surrounding the lungs.
PNEUMOCONIOSIS (noo-mo-ko-ne-O-sis):
group of lung diseases resulting from inhalation of particles of dust, such as coal, with permanent deposition of such particles in the lung.
PNEUMONITIS (noo-mo-NI-tis):
inflammation of a lung or lungs.
POLYDIPSIA (pol-e-DIP-se-ah):
excessive thirst.
POSTERIOR (pos-TER-e-or):
located in the back portion of a structure or of the body.
PRECANCEROUS (pre-KAN-ser-us):
pertaining to a condition that may precede cancer; a condition that tends to become malignant.
PROCTOLOGIST (prok-TOL-o-jist):
physician who specializes in the study of the anus and rectum.
PROGNOSIS (prog-NO-sis):
forecast as to the probable outcome of an illness or treatment; literally, before (PRO-) knowledge (-GNOSIS).
male gland that surrounds the base of the urinary bladder. It produces fluid that leaves the body with sperm cells.
PROSTATIC (pros-TAH-tik):
pertaining to the prostate gland.
PROSTATIC CARCINOMA (pros-TAH-tik kar-si-NO-mah):
malignant tumor arising from the PROSTATE GLAND.
PHARYNGEAL (fah-rin-JE-al):
pertaining to the pharynx (throat)
PHLEBITIS (fleh-BI-tis):
inflammation of the vein.
PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION (FIZ-e-kal MED-i-sin and re-ha-bil-i-TA-shun):
field of medicine that specializes in restoring the function of the body after illness
cell in the blood that aids clotting; thrombocyte.
inflammation of the pleura
PNEUMONECTOMY (noo-mo-NEK-to-me):
removal of a lung.
PNEUMOTHORAX (noo-mo-THO-raks):
abnormal accumulation of air in the space between the pleura.
a growth or mass (benign) protruding from a mucous membrane, and hemoglobin level is elevated.
POSTMORTEM (post MOR-tem):
after death.
PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (pros-TAH-tik hi-per-PLA-zhah):
abnormal increase in growth (benign) of the prostate gland.
PROSTHESIS (pros-THE-sis):
artificial substitute for a missing part of the body; literally, to place (-THESIS) before (PROS-).